Skip to main content

Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of reared Cobitis striata fuchigamii (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)


In this study, the early development of Cobitis striata fuchigamii was described using aquarium-spawned eggs and juveniles. Egg yolk diameter after water absorption was 1.0‒1.1 mm, and the spherical, demersal eggs had a light-yellow yolk, no oil droplets, and low viscosity. Newly hatched larvae [4.0–4.5 mm in total length (TL)] had 44‒45 (27‒28 + 17‒18) myomeres (26‒27 between the pectoral fins and the middle of the anus), two pairs of short tubular outer gill filaments on the cheek, and only a few melanophores on parts of the eye. Notochord flexion began at 5.1–6.8 mm TL and ended at 10.0 mm TL. The number of fin rays on each fin was finalized at approximately 25.0 mm TL. Lateral line spots of the larvae were indistinct, and juveniles formed blotches at approximately 25.0 mm TL. The barbels were formed in the following order: third, second, and then first. The formation of membranous fins occurred in the following order: pectoral, caudal, dorsal, anal, and then pelvic; full fin ray complements occurred in the caudal, dorsal, anal, pectoral, and pelvic regions. Some individuals (5.1–7.5 mm TL at the flexion stage) had free lateral neuromasts on the caudal region, each with a short cupula.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  • Bohlen J (2003a) Temperature and oxygen requirements of the endangered spined loach, Cobitis taenia L. (Teleostei, Cobitidae) and implications for the management of natural populations. Arch Hydrobiol 157:195‒212

  • Bohlen J (2003b) Spawning habitat in the spined loach, Cobitis taenia (Cypriniformes; Cobitidae). Ichthyol Res 50:98‒101

  • Fujimoto T, Kataoka T, Sakao S, Saito T, Yamaha E, Arai K (2006) Developmental stages and germ cell lineage of the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Zoolog Sci 23:977‒989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fukuoka Prefecture (2014) Fukuoka Red Data Book 2014. Environmental Department of Fukuoka Prefecture, Fukuoka

  • Hosoya K (2013) Cobitidae. In: Nakabo T (ed) Fishes of Japan with pictorial keys to the species, third edition. Tokai University Press, Hadano, pp 328–332, 1819

  • Hosoya K (2014) Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. In: Okiyama M (ed) An atlas of the early stage, fishes in Japan, second edition. Tokai University Press, Hadano, p 139

    Google Scholar 

  • Kano Y, Nakajima J, Yamasaki T, Kitamura J, Tabata R (2018) Photo images, 3D models and CT scanned data of loaches (Botiidae, Cobitidae and Nemacheilidae) of Japan. Biodivers Data J 6:e26265

  • Kendall AW Jr, Ahlstrom EH, Moser HG (1984) Early life history stages of fishes and their characters. In: Moser HG, Richards WJ, Cohen DM, Fahay MP, Kendall AW Jr, Richardson SL (eds) Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology Special Publication No 1. Allen Press, Lawrence, pp 11–22

  • Kitagawa E, Nakajima J, Hoshino K, Kitagawa T (2009) Geographic distribution and biogeographical origin of the spined loach genus Cobitis in north-eastern Kyushu Island, Japan. Jpn J Ichthyol 56:7‒19

    Google Scholar 

  • Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2020) Red List 2020, Ministry of the Environment. Accessed 2 September 2021

  • Nagae K, Takahashi H, Endo H (2021) Mating behavior and early development of Cobitis sp. BIWAE type D. Jpn J Ichthyol 68:143‒150

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J (2012) Taxonomic study of the Cobitis striata complex (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae) in Japan. Zootaxa 3586:103‒130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J (2017) Present status of Japanese striated spined loaches (Cobitidae: Cobitis spp.) and their future conservation. Jpn J Ichthyol 64:69‒76

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J, Uchiyama R (2017) Loaches of Japan – natural history and culture. Yama-kei Publishers, Tokyo

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J, Onikura N, Matsui S, Oikawa S (2006) Geographical distribution of genuine freshwater fishes in Fukuoka Prefecture, northern Kyushu. Jpn J Ichthyol 53:117‒131

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J, Onikura N, Kitagawa E, Kitagawa T, Oikawa S (2008) Distribution pattern of Cobitis (Telostei: Cobitidae) in northern Kyushu Island, Japan. Folia Zool 57:10‒15

    Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J, Ohata T, Onikura N (2011) Longitudinal distribution patterns of three spined loach species (Cobitidae, Cobitis) in the Onga River system, northern Kyushu Island, Japan. Folia Zool 60:322‒324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima J, Suzawa Y, Shimizu T, Saitoh K (2012) Proposal of standard Japanese names for Japanese loaches in the genus Cobitis (Cobitidae). Jpn J Ichthyol 59:86‒95

    Google Scholar 

  • Noguchi D, Higuchi M, Yamada K (2009) Studies on the collection fertilized eggs using natural spawning of the dojo loach (Misugurnus anguillicaudatus) treated with gonadotropin and the extensive breeding of loach young. Rep Niigata Pref Inland Water Fish Exp Stn 33:1‒6

    Google Scholar 

  • Okada Y, Seiishi R (1937) Morphological and ecological studies of the larva and youngs of freshwater fishes in Japan (8) Cobitis biwae JORDAN & SNYDER. J Fish Sci 32:549‒554

    Google Scholar 

  • Okada Y, Seiishi R (1938) Studies on the early life history of 9 species of freshwater fishes of Japan. Bull Biogeogr Soc Jpn 8:223–253

    Google Scholar 

  • Pedrazzani AS, Neto AO (2014) The anaesthetic effect of camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and mint (Mentha arvensis) essential oils on clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris (Cuvier 1830). Aquac Res. (also appeared in Aquac Res 47:769‒776)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saitoh K (1990) Reproductive and habitat isolation between two populations of the striated spined loach. Environ Biol Fishes 28:237‒248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Saitoh K, Hosoya K (2014a) Cobitis magnostriata. In: Okiyama M (ed) An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan, 2nd edn. Tokai University Press, Hadano, pp 141–142

  • Saitoh K, Hosoya K (2014b) Cobitis minamorii minamorii. In: Okiyama M (ed) An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan, second edition. Tokai University Press, Hadano, pp 141–144

  • Saitoh K, Hosoya K (2014c) Cobitis striata. In: Okiyama M (ed) An atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan, second edition. Tokai University Press, Hadano, pp 143–145

  • Sakai N, Mizutani H, Tsutsumi H (2008) Ongagawa suikei Hikosangawa niokeru Karadojyô no saishû kiroku. Watashitachi no shizenshi 105:17‒18

    Google Scholar 

  • Shimizu T (2005) Ishidojyô—Rekikan no odayaka na jûnin—. In: Katano O, Mori S (ed) Kisyôtansuigyo no genzai to mirai—sekkyokutekihozen no sinario—. Shinzansha, Tokyo, pp 253‒268

  • Shimizu T, Sakai H, Mizuno N (1998) Embryonic and larval development of a Japanese spinous loach, Cobitis takatsuensis. Ichthyol Res 45:377‒384

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi H, Shimizu T (2016) Ehimeken de saisyû sareta kokugaiinyûsyu Karadojyô no sitigyo no keitai. Nanyoseibutsu 18:27‒33

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We express our thanks to K. Matsushige, S. Momodomi, and other members of the Laboratory of Aquatic Field Science, Kyusyu University, and J. Nakajima for their help with the sample collection. We also thank K. Ohta for providing human chorionic gonadotropin, H. Takahashi for advice, R. Yamaguchi and N. Sawada for help in collecting references, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. We would like to thank Editage ( for English language editing.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Norio Onikura.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nagae, K., Koyama, A. & Onikura, N. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of reared Cobitis striata fuchigamii (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Ichthyol Res (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Cobitidae
  • Striped loach
  • Larvae
  • Juveniles
  • Endangered species