A new perchlet, Plectranthias ryukyuensis, is described on the basis of four specimens (41.2–61.6 mm standard length: SL) from the Okinawa Islands, Japan. Plectranthias ryukyuensis can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: X, 15 or 16 dorsal-fin rays; 14 pectoral-fin rays, all unbranched; lateral line complete, with 29 or 30 pored scales; 3 scale rows above lateral line; 5 or 6 diagonal rows of large scales on cheek between eye and corner of preopercle; preopercle with two antrorse spines on ventral margin, 20–29 serrae on posterior margin; margins of subopercle and interopercle with a few serrae (weak in large individuals); minute flaps at tips of first to ninth dorsal-fin spines; caudal fin shallowly emarginate, with some ray branches distinctively elongated past fin margin; fourth dorsal-fin spine longest, its length 110.6–128.6% that of third spine; body pinkish-white with two longitudinal rows of irregular orange-red blotches on upper half of lateral surface when fresh (rows close together in smaller than ca. 50 mm SL), blotches interconnecting anteriorly on upper and lower rows, and posterior half of lower row; four faint orange-red vertical bands below lateral line on posterior half of body and two distinct yellow blotches on cheek in fresh specimens; body uniformly yellowish-brown with two longitudinal rows of irregular dark blotches on upper half of lateral surface in preserved specimens (faint in small specimens). A key to the Japanese species of Plectranthias is given.
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We are especially grateful to K. Abe (Cube International Co., Ltd.), who collected the type specimens of the present new species. A. Kaneko (OCF), A. Mishiku (Okinawa, Japan) and T. Hashimoto (Osaka, Japan) took photographs of live individuals, the crew of the FV Daikoku-maru, FV Matsuyoshi-maru, RV Yoko-maru, and RV Nagasaki-maru, Tosashimizu Fisheries Guidance Station, M. Okamoto, T. Yoshida, S. Tashiro (Seikai National Fisheries Research Institute), M. Yamada (Kagoshima City Aquarium), T. Maekawa and F. Maekawa (Maekawa Fisheries Co., Ltd., Amami), M. Matsunuma (Kindai University), D. Uyeno (Kagoshima University), N. Hanzawa (Yamaguchi University), M. Fujimoto (Hiroshima University), Y. Sakurai (Okinawa, Japan), M. Takayama, G. Ogihara, M. Yamashita, Y. Ohashi, K. Wibowo, K. Fujiwara, and K. Kawama (KAUM) collected comparative materials, and S. Kimura (FRLM), K. Matsuura, G. Shinohara, H. Namikawa, M. Nakae, and K. Kuriiwa (NSMT), and K. Miyamoto (OCF) provided opportunities to examine specimens of Plectranthias. J. Nakamura (KAUM) gave valuable comments on the manuscript, two anonymous referees for reading the manuscript and providing valuable comments, and G. Hardy (Ngunguru, New Zealand) read the manuscript and provided help with English. The curatorial assistance of Y. Haraguchi, and other volunteers and members of the Laboratory of Fish Systematics (KAUM) is also gratefully acknowledged. This study was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP19770067, JP26241027, JP24370041, JP23580259, JP26450265; the JSPS Core-to-Core Program: B Asia-Africa Science Platforms; the “Biological Properties of Biodiversity Hotspots in Japan” project of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan; “Establishment of Research and Education Network on Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Satsunan Islands” project of Kagoshima University adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; and the “Island Research” project of Kagoshima University.
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Wada, H., Suzuki, T., Senou, H. et al. Plectranthias ryukyuensis, a new species of perchlet from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with a key to the Japanese species of Plectranthias (Serranidae: Anthiadinae). Ichthyol Res 67, 294–307 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-019-00725-6
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