A new tongue sole of the genus Cynoglossus from the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae)

Abstract

Cynoglossus yokomaru sp. nov., previously known as Cynoglossus sp., called “Otafuku-genko” (the standard Japanese name), is described based on 15 specimens [64–226 mm in standard length (SL)] collected at depths of 73–157 m in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea. The new species belongs to the Cynoglossus kopsii complex as redefined in this paper and clearly differs from its congeners by the following combination of characters: two ocular-side lateral lines (dorsolateral and midlateral lines present, ventrolateral line absent); no blind-side lateral line; ctenoid scales present on both sides; two ocular-side nostrils; ocular-side posterior nostril immediately anterior to a point between eyes; head length (HL) shorter than its depth; posterior margin of upper jaw on ocular side not reaching below posterior margin of lower eye; body depth 25.8–30.2% SL; upper supraorbital length 35.5–47.3% HL; lower supraorbital length 48.8–64.3% HL; horizontal diameter of lower eye 10.1–17.4% HL; a long and continuous dorsolateral line with 61–70 scales; midlateral-line scales 4–5 + 65–68 = 69–73; scales above dorsolateral line 3–4; scales between dorsolateral line and midlateral line 10–12; cephalodorsal-line scales 8; dorsal-fin rays 115–119; anal-fin rays 90–94; caudal-fin rays 10 (rarely 8 or 9); and vertebrae 9 + 47–48 = 56–57.

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Acknowledgments

We are deeply indebted to the following researchers and museum specialists for specimen loans and shipments, assistance during the first author’s visits to their institutions, and assistance with radiography: J. Maclain and O. Crimmen (BMNH); D. Catania (CAS); N. Nakayama (Tokai University, formerly FAKU) and F. Tashiro (HUMZ, formerly FAKU); Y. Kai and R. Misawa (FAKU); C. McMahan, S. Mochel and K. Swagel (FMNH); H. Motomura (KAUM), K. Koeda (NMMB, formerly KAUM), H. Hata, and other KAUM students; H. Senou (KPM); P. Pruvost, R. Causse, Z. Gabsi, J. Pfliger, and A. Allard (MNHN); G. Shinohara and N. Nakae (NSMT); K. Hatooka (formerly OMNH), K. Hoshino and T. Nagasawa (SNFR); J. Williams, K. Murphy, and S. Raredon (USMN); P. Bartsch and E. Aßel (ZMB); and L. Kosygin Singh, S. S. Mishra and other ZSI staff. Our sincere thanks go to K. Mizumachi and other BSKU students, T. Yamakawa (Kochi, Japan), Y. Mizumachi (Imari, Japan), S. Mizumachi (Imari, Japan), and the staff of the Mimase and Saga fish markets, for assistance in collecting specimens; M.-Y. Lee (NTUM) for providing the photographs of type specimens of C. brachycephalus and C. kopsii; two anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments to improve the manuscript; and G. Yearsley (Hobart, Tasmania) for editing the English text. This study was supported in part by grants awarded to the first author by the Fujiwara Natural History Foundation. Part of the type specimens were captured through the cruises funded by “Project of survey and assessment of fish stock in the waters around Japan” promoted by Fisheries Agency.

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Correspondence to Taiga Naito.

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Naito, T., Endo, H. A new tongue sole of the genus Cynoglossus from the East China Sea and Yellow Sea (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae). Ichthyol Res 66, 400–410 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-019-00685-x

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Keywords

  • Cynoglossus yokomaru
  • New species
  • East China Sea
  • Yellow Sea
  • Two lateral lines