Comparative phylogeography of diadromous and freshwater daces of the genus Tribolodon (Cyprinidae)

Abstract

Far Eastern daces, genus Tribolodon (Cyprinidae), are thought to have diversified and developed unique diadromous life histories under changing conditions in the Sea of Japan and the surrounding environment. To examine the relationships between life history traits, distribution, and genetic population structures, we conducted a comparative phylogeographic analysis using partial mtDNA sequence data from samples collected over almost the full ranges of all four Tribolodon species. Phylogenetic analyses revealed several intraspecific haplotype groups that differentiated in the early Pleistocene to the Pliocene with or without geographic overlaps. A time-calibrated phylogeny suggested that the relatively smaller geographic ranges of the strictly freshwater species, T. sachalinensis and T. nakamurai, were explained not by the recent origins of these species, but by their limited dispersal abilities and smaller historical population sizes. The wider-ranging diadromous species, T. brandtii and T. hakonensis, exhibited similar major phylogeographic structures in their distributions, but the chronological order and timing of formation of this structure largely differed between the two species. In addition to those differences, the overlapping patterns of the differentiated intraspecific lineages in these species suggest dynamic, but somewhat restricted dispersal during the Plio-Pleistocene. Tribolodon hakonensis, one of the most widespread species of East Asian freshwater fishes, included both common and unique phylogeographic patterns compared to other fish species; the unique patterns (i.e., its wide range across freshwater biogeographic boundaries like the sea and mountains) would reflect its ecological features as a remarkable generalist inhabiting lakes, upper and lower reaches of rivers, and even coastal areas.

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Acknowledgements

We thank S. Amano, A. Goto, R. Kakioka, H. Kato, K. Katsura, H. Kohno, K. Iguchi, S.-R. Jeon, T. Kaneko, S. N. Safronov, H. Sugiyama, R. Tabata, Y. Takahashi, T. Tokuhara, V. V. Tsuiger, G. Yamamoto, Y. Yamazaki, and A. Zama for their help in the collection of specimens. This study was partially supported by the Sumitomo Foundation and JSPS KAKENHI (No. 06041004, 09041138, 21370035, 26291079, 26250044, and 17H03720).

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Watanabe, K., Sakai, H., Sanada, T. et al. Comparative phylogeography of diadromous and freshwater daces of the genus Tribolodon (Cyprinidae). Ichthyol Res 65, 383–397 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-018-0624-9

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Keywords

  • Freshwater fish
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  • Far East Asia
  • Central Highland
  • Diadromy