Stolephorus continentalis, a new anchovy from the northwestern South China Sea, and redescription of Stolephorus chinensis (Günther 1880) (Clupeiformes: Engraulidae)

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Abstract

Stolephorus continentalis sp. nov. is described from 36 specimens from Hong Kong and northern Vietnam. The new species is closely related to the endemic Chinese anchovy S. chinensis (Günther 1880), which is redescribed with a lectotype designated, with both species having a long upper jaw with the posterior tip just reaching to the posterior border of the preopercle; no predorsal scute; the posterior preopercular border rounded, convex; the posterior tip of the depressed pelvic fin not reaching to vertical through dorsal-fin origin; a pair of dark patches behind the occiput without a following pair of dark lines; and no black spots below the eye and lower-jaw tip. However, the new species is distinguished from S. chinensis in having higher total gill-raker counts on the first, second, third, and fourth gill arches (43–48, 33–40, 23–26, and 18–21, respectively vs. 35–41, 29–34, 19–24, and 16–19), and longer pectoral (16.5–19.2 % SL vs. 15.8–16.4 %) and pelvic fins (9.1–11.6 % SL vs. 8.2–8.3 %). Examination of the specimens previously considered as S. chinensis from Southeast Asia revealed that they differed from true S. chinensis and S. continentalis in having eight transverse scales (vs. 10 in the latter two species). The applicable scientific name for the Southeast Asian species is suggested here as Stolephorus oceanicus Hardenberg 1933.

Keywords

Teleostei New species Morphology Taxonomy Anchovies 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The Vietnamese specimens were collected with the support of the Institute of Marine Environment and Resources (Haiphone) and the Ha Long Bay Management Department (Ha Long), with permission for their use granted by the Biodiversity Conservation Agency, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Hanoi). The Malaysian specimens were collected during the JSPS (the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan) Asian Core Program, “Establishment of Research and Education Network on Coastal Marine Science in Southeast Asia”, supported by the Ministry of Higher Education (Government of Malaysia), University Putra Malaysia, and University Malaysia Terengganu. We thank O. Crimmen and J. Maclaine (BMNH), S. Kimura (FRLM), M. Nakae (NSMT), K. Miyamoto (OCF), and J. Williams, K. Murphy, S. Raredon, and D. Pitassy (USNM) for opportunities to examine specimens of Stolephorus. We also thank Y. Haraguchi and other volunteers, and students of KAUM for their curatorial assistance, and G. Hardy (Ngunguru, New Zealand) for checking an early version of this manuscript. This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for JSPS Fellows (DC2: 29-6652); the Sasakawa Scientific Research Grant from the Japan Science Society (28-745); JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP19770067, JP26241027, JP24370041, JP23580259, and JP26450265; the “Biological Properties of Biodiversity Hotspots in Japan” project of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan; “Establishment of Research and Education Network on Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Satsunan Islands” project of Kagoshima University adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; and the “Island Research” project by Kagoshima University.

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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The United Graduate School of Agricultural SciencesKagoshima UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.The Kagoshima University MuseumKagoshimaJapan

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