Ichthyological Research

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 177–191 | Cite as

Review of the Chromis xanthura species group (Perciformes: Pomacentridae), with description of a new species

  • Hiroyuki Motomura
  • Hajime Nishiyama
  • Satoru N. Chiba
Full Paper


A taxonomic review of the Chromis xanthura species group, defined here as having 13 dorsal-fin spines, three upper and three lower procurrent caudal-fin rays, two black bands at the preopercular and opercular margins, and a yellow caudal fin when juvenile, resulted in the recognition of three species, Chromis xanthura (Bleeker 1854), Chromis opercularis (Günther 1867), and Chromis anadema sp. nov. Chromis xanthura and C. opercularis, the Pacific and Indian Ocean paired sister species, respectively, are redescribed, with confirmation of two color types of C. xanthura (having a white or black caudal peduncle and fin) as a single species on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses. Chromis anadema sp. nov., described from the oceanic islands of the Pacific Ocean on the basis of 21 specimens, is characterized by having 28–33 gill rakers; longest dorsal-fin soft ray length 20.0–24.7% of standard length (SL); first anal-fin spine length 5.0–6.1% of SL; caudal-fin length 33.4–43.8% of SL; posterior tips of caudal-fin lobes not filamentous in adults; broad black bands along preopercular and opercular margins, sum width of two bands 28.9–38.7% of head length; distal half of soft-rayed portion of dorsal fin transparent in adults; triangular black blotches at upper and lower caudal-fin base in adults; caudal peduncle and fin bluish black in adults; and body grayish, and all fins (except for pectoral fin) bright yellow in juveniles.


Teleostei Chromis anadema Chromis opercularis Damselfish Taxonomy Morphology 



We are especially grateful to M. McGrouther, A. Hay, and S. Reader (AMS), J. Maclaine (BMNH), A. Suzumoto and L. O’Hara (BPBM), D. Catania and M. Hoang (CAS), Y. Kai (FAKU), H. Senou (KPM), K. Hartel and A. Williston (MCZ), P. Pruvost, P. Béarez, R. Causse, Z. Gabsi, and L.-M. Duque Vélez (MNHN), G. Shinohara and M. Nakae (NSMT), K. Hatooka (OMNH), M. van Oijen and R. de Ruiter (RMNH), K. Miyamoto (URM), J. Williams, S. Raredon, L. Palmer, K. Murphy, and D. Pitassy (USNM), and G. Moore, M. Allen, and S. Morrison (WAM) for providing opportunities to examine specimens of Chromis. We thank S. Harazaki, K. Katagiri, S. Kato, R. Kuiter, J. Randall, and T. Uchida for providing underwater and specimen photographs of Chromis, S. Harazaki (Yaku-shima), T. Takeshita (Yoron-jima), and T. Uchida (Ishigaki-jima) for their assistance in collecting specimens from the Ryukyu Islands, Y. Haraguchi and other volunteers, and students of KAUM for their curatorial assistance, and G. Yearsley (Ellipsis Editing) for checking an early version of this manuscript. This study was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26241027, JP24370041, JP23580259, JP26450265, and JP26650149; the JSPS Core-to-Core Program: B Asia-Africa Science Platforms; the “Biological Properties of Biodiversity Hotspots in Japan” project of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan; and the “Establishment of Research and Education Network on Biodiversity and its Conservation in the Satsunan Islands” project of Kagoshima University adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Kagoshima University MuseumKagoshimaJapan
  2. 2.Nobatake Elementary SchoolToyonakaJapan
  3. 3.National Museum of Nature and ScienceTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Museum of Natural and Environmental HistoryShizuokaJapan

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