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Review of the genus Banjos (Perciformes: Banjosidae) with descriptions of two new species and a new subspecies

Abstract

A taxonomic review of the genus Banjos (Perciformes: Banjosidae), previously restricted to a single species, Banjos banjos (Richardson 1846), recorded from the northwestern Pacific Ocean from the South China Sea north to Japan, as well as Lombok (Indonesia), New Caledonia and Australia, resulted in the recognition of three species, including B. banjos (northwestern Pacific Ocean, Indonesia and western Australia), Banjos aculeatus sp. nov. (eastern Australia) and Banjos peregrinus sp. nov. [northern Australia (Timor Sea)]. Records of B. banjos from New Caledonia probably also represent B. aculeatus, which is clearly distinct from other congeners in having a relatively long, strongly serrated spine at the posteroventral angle of the preopercle and an entirely dusky membrane on the spinous dorsal fin in juveniles < ca. 70 mm SL, in addition to slightly longer first and second dorsal-fin spines. Banjos peregrinus is characterized by a relatively greater head length, orbit diameter, postorbital length and pre-pelvic-fin length, as well as poorly developed serration of the exposed margin of the cleithrum. Within B. banjos, a population from the southeastern Indian Ocean, including Indonesia and western Australia, is regarded as a distinct subspecies (Banjos banjos brevispinis ssp. nov.), distinguishable from B. b. banjos from the northwestern Pacific Ocean by a relatively narrow least interorbital width, and shorter second and eighth dorsal-fin spines. Ontogenetic morphological changes within the genus and the status of the holotype of Anoplus banjos Richardson 1846 are discussed in detail.

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Acknowledgments

We are especially grateful to G. Ogihara (formerly KAUM) for providing data on his preliminary taxonomic study on Banjos; Y. Takigawa (Kagawa University, Japan) for sharing her extensive knowledge of historical Japanese fish specimens brought to Europe; and M. McGrouther (AMS); K.-T. Shao (ASIZP); J. Maclaine (BMNH); H. Endo (BSKU); D. Catania (CAS); A. Graham (CSIRO); Y. Kai (FAKU) and T. Nakabo (formerly FAKU); H. Senou (KPM); H. Kohno (MTUF); Y. Iwatsuki (MUFS); C. Struthers (NMNZ); D. Bray (NMV); K. Matsuura, G. Shinohara and M. Nakae (NSMT); G. Dally and M. Hammer (NTM); H.-L. Wu (SFU); K. Hoshino (SNFR); T. Yoshino (formerly URM); J. Williams (USNM); S. Morrison (formerly WAM); and P. Bartsch (ZMB) for providing opportunities to examine specimens. We are also very appreciative of J. Maclaine for providing information on BMNH specimens of Banjos; G. Mou-Tham (IRDNC), R. Fricke (SMNS) and Z. Gabsi (MNHN) for providing information on New Caledonian specimens of Banjos; and S. Bogorodsky (Station of Naturalists, Russia) for providing help with Russian translations. K. Graham (AMS), L. Conboy, G. Leyland, A. Williams, D. Wright (CSIRO), and staffs of National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries (formerly Far Seas Fisheries Research Laboratory) provided photographs of specimens; J. Maclaine (BMNH), Y. Kai, F. Tashiro, N. Nakayama and students (FAKU), and G. Shinohara, M. Nakae and other staff (NSMT) provided hospitality during the author’s visits to their institutions; students and volunteers of KAUM assisted in sampling specimens and providing curatorial support; N. Nakayama (formerly BSKU), M. Okamoto (SNFR) and Y. Sakurai (Okinawa, Japan) donated specimens; G. Hardy (Ngunguru, New Zealand) read the manuscript and provided help with English; and M. Gomon (NMV) and anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP26241027, JP24370041, JP23580259, and JP26450265; JSPS Fellow (PD: 16J00047); the JSPS Core-to-Core Program, “Research and Education Network on Southeast Asian Coastal Ecosystems”; the “Coastal Area Capability Enhancement in Southeast Asia Project” of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan; the “Biological Properties of Biodiversity Hotspots in Japan” project of the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, Japan; and “Establishment of Research and Education Network on Biodiversity and Its Conservation in the Satsunan Islands” project of Kagoshima University, adopted by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

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Correspondence to Mizuki Matsunuma.

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This article was registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as 4596A021-D0D3-4098-8982-B4C53E320962.

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Matsunuma, M., Motomura, H. Review of the genus Banjos (Perciformes: Banjosidae) with descriptions of two new species and a new subspecies. Ichthyol Res 64, 265–294 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-016-0569-9

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Keywords

  • Banjofish
  • Anoplus banjos
  • Morphology
  • Taxonomy
  • Antitropical distribution