Ichthyological Research

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 241–248 | Cite as

Validity of Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 (Pisces: Sparidae) from Chennai (Madras), India, with taxonomic statuses of the congeners

  • Yukio Iwatsuki
  • James Maclaine
Full Paper


The sparid species Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 was described on the basis of a single specimen (originally one of the syntypes of Crenidens indicus Day 1873 from Chennai, India), but the true taxonomic identity of the species was not clear. A new examination of the holotype (BMNH 1868.10.27.28, 126 mm in standard length) justified it as a valid species in the genus Crenidens. Crenidens macracanthus can be distinguished from Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775) and Crenidens indicus Day 1873 by having an exceptionally large second anal-fin spine (2AS), 1.34–1.41 times longer than the third anal-fin spine (3AS) (vs. 2AS subequal to or slightly larger than 3AS, 2AS 0.92–1.19 in 3AS in C. crenidens and C. indicus), dorsal-fin rays XII, 10 (vs. usually XI, 11 in C. crenidens and C. indicus but rarely XII, 10 in the latter), lower counts of pored lateral-line scales 47–48 (vs. 49–53 in C. crenidens and C. indicus), and incisor-like teeth with five points, all points subequal in size, well pointed initially but often worn out to form a flat cutting edge (vs. incisor-like teeth with five points, three middle points large in size, but two outside points much smaller and often worn out). Additionally, C. crenidens clearly differs from C. indicus by having 4½ scale rows between the 10th dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line (vs. 5½–6½ scale rows in C. indicus). The two were raised to a species level from a subspecies level and Crenidens forskalii Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes 1830 was justified as a junior synonym of Crenidens crenidens.


Validity Crenidensmacracanthus Sparidae Pisces India 



We are appreciative of the following people for sampling help and providing X-rays and photographs, loans of specimens, and providing distributional information on Crenidens: M. McGrouther (AMS); A. Suzumoto and J.E. Randall (BPBM); P. Crabb and P. Hurst (BMNH); F. Claude, R. Causse, P. Pruvost, and G. Duhamel (MNHN); H. Kohno and M. Moteki (MTUF-P); F. Tanaka (MUFS); M.J.P. van Oijen (RMNH); P. Bartsch (ZMB); T. Menne, P.R. Møller and J.G. Nielsen (ZMUC): A.K. Karmakar (Calcutta, ZSI); M.N. Venugopal (Mangalore Fisheries College, Karnataka, India); R. Nair (Cochin, India, personal communication); P.J. Siddiqui (University of Karachi, Pakistan); S.A. Amir (Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Pakistan). This study was partially supported in part by grants, awarded to the first author, by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan (Nos. 16570079, 19208019, and 20570091).


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  2. 2.ZoologyNatural History MuseumLondonUK

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