Advertisement

Ichthyological Research

, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp 241–248 | Cite as

Validity of Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 (Pisces: Sparidae) from Chennai (Madras), India, with taxonomic statuses of the congeners

  • Yukio Iwatsuki
  • James Maclaine
Full Paper

Abstract

The sparid species Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 was described on the basis of a single specimen (originally one of the syntypes of Crenidens indicus Day 1873 from Chennai, India), but the true taxonomic identity of the species was not clear. A new examination of the holotype (BMNH 1868.10.27.28, 126 mm in standard length) justified it as a valid species in the genus Crenidens. Crenidens macracanthus can be distinguished from Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775) and Crenidens indicus Day 1873 by having an exceptionally large second anal-fin spine (2AS), 1.34–1.41 times longer than the third anal-fin spine (3AS) (vs. 2AS subequal to or slightly larger than 3AS, 2AS 0.92–1.19 in 3AS in C. crenidens and C. indicus), dorsal-fin rays XII, 10 (vs. usually XI, 11 in C. crenidens and C. indicus but rarely XII, 10 in the latter), lower counts of pored lateral-line scales 47–48 (vs. 49–53 in C. crenidens and C. indicus), and incisor-like teeth with five points, all points subequal in size, well pointed initially but often worn out to form a flat cutting edge (vs. incisor-like teeth with five points, three middle points large in size, but two outside points much smaller and often worn out). Additionally, C. crenidens clearly differs from C. indicus by having 4½ scale rows between the 10th dorsal-fin spine base and the lateral line (vs. 5½–6½ scale rows in C. indicus). The two were raised to a species level from a subspecies level and Crenidens forskalii Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes 1830 was justified as a junior synonym of Crenidens crenidens.

Keywords

Validity Crenidensmacracanthus Sparidae Pisces India 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are appreciative of the following people for sampling help and providing X-rays and photographs, loans of specimens, and providing distributional information on Crenidens: M. McGrouther (AMS); A. Suzumoto and J.E. Randall (BPBM); P. Crabb and P. Hurst (BMNH); F. Claude, R. Causse, P. Pruvost, and G. Duhamel (MNHN); H. Kohno and M. Moteki (MTUF-P); F. Tanaka (MUFS); M.J.P. van Oijen (RMNH); P. Bartsch (ZMB); T. Menne, P.R. Møller and J.G. Nielsen (ZMUC): A.K. Karmakar (Calcutta, ZSI); M.N. Venugopal (Mangalore Fisheries College, Karnataka, India); R. Nair (Cochin, India, personal communication); P.J. Siddiqui (University of Karachi, Pakistan); S.A. Amir (Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Pakistan). This study was partially supported in part by grants, awarded to the first author, by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Japan (Nos. 16570079, 19208019, and 20570091).

References

  1. Bauchot ML, Smith MM (1983) Sparidae. In: Fisher W, Bianchi G (eds), FAO species identification sheets for fisheries purposes. Western Indian Ocean. Fishing Area 51. Vol. 4. FAO, Rome, pp 1–11, “SPARID Acanth 11” to “SPARID Spond 12”Google Scholar
  2. Cuvier G, Valenciennes A (1830) Historie naturelle des poissons. Tome Sixième. Livre sixième. Partie I. Des Sparoïdes; Partie II. Des Ménides. Hist Nat Pois 6:1–559Google Scholar
  3. Day F (1873) The sea fishes of India and Burma. In: Day F (ed) Report on the sea fish and fisheries of India and Burma. Office of Superintendant of Government Printing, Calcutta, pp cliii–cccxxxiiGoogle Scholar
  4. Day F (1875) The fishes of India; being a natural history of the fishes known to inhabit the seas and fresh waters of India, Burma, and Ceylon (vol 1). Mem Asia Soc Calcutta and Cotswold Naturalists’ Field Club, etc, India and BurmaGoogle Scholar
  5. Dor M (1984) CLOFRES. Checklist of the fishes of the Red Sea. Israel Academy Sciences Humanities, JerusalemGoogle Scholar
  6. Eschmeyer WN, Fricke R (eds) (2012) Catalog of fishes. Electronic version, updated 25 March 2013. http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. Accessed 20 October 2012
  7. Forsskål P (1775) Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observavit. Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Hauniae. Descr. Animalium Descriptiones animalium avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium; quae in itinere orientali observavit… Post mortem auctoris edidit Carsten Niebuhr. Mölleri, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  8. Leviton AE, Gibbs Jr, RH, Heal E, Dawson CE (1985) Standards in herpetology and ichthyology: part I. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetologists and ichthyologists. Copeia 1985:802–832Google Scholar
  9. Günther A (1874) Descriptions of new species of fishes in the British Museum. Ann Mag Nat His (Ser 4) 14:368–371Google Scholar
  10. Heemstra PC, Heemstra E (2004) Coastal fishes of southern Africa. The National Inquiry Service Centre (NISC) and The South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity (SAIAB), GrahamstownGoogle Scholar
  11. Hubbs CL, Lagler KF (1964) Fishes of the Great Lakes region. Bull Cranbrook Inst Sci 26:1–213Google Scholar
  12. Iwatsuki Y (2009) Sparidae. In: Kimura S, Satapoomin U, Matsuura K (eds) Fishes of Andaman Sea, west coast of southern Thailand. National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, pp 165–166Google Scholar
  13. Iwatsuki Y, Akazaki, M, Taniguchi N (2007) Review of the species of the genus Dentex (Perciformes: Sparidae) in the western Pacific defined as the D. hypselosomus complex with the description of a new species, Dentex abei and a redescription of Evynnis tumifrons. Bull Nat Mus Sci (Ser. A) Suppl 1:29–49Google Scholar
  14. Iwatsuki Y, Heemstra PC (2010) Taxonomic review of the western Indian Ocean species of the genus Acanthopagrus Peters, 1855 (Perciformes: Sparidae), with description of a new species from Oman. Copeia 2010:123–136Google Scholar
  15. Iwatsuki Y, Heemstra PC (2011) Polysteganus mascarenensis, a new sparid fish species from Mascarene Islands, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 3018:13–20Google Scholar
  16. Klausewitz W, Nielsen JG (1965) On Forsskål’s collection of fishes in the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Spolia Zool Mus Haun 22:1–29Google Scholar
  17. Manilo LG, Bogorodsky SV (2003) Taxonomic composition, diversity and distribution of coastal fishes of the Arabian Sea. J Ichthyol 43:S75–S149Google Scholar
  18. Menon AGK, Yazdani GM (1968) Catalogue of type-specimens in the Zoological Survey of India. Part 2. Fishes. Rec Zool Sur India 6:91–190Google Scholar
  19. Randall JE (1995) Coastal fishes of Oman. Crowford House Pub Pty Ltd, BathurstGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith JLB, Smith MM (1986) Family no. 183: Sparidae. In: Smith MM, Heemstra PC (eds) Smiths’ sea fishes. Macmillan South Africa, JohannesburgGoogle Scholar
  21. Tortonese E (1973) Sparidae. In: Hureau JC, Monod T (eds) Check-list of the fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and of the Mediterranean. CLOFNAM, Unesco, ParisGoogle Scholar
  22. Whitehead PJP, Talwar PK (1976) Francis Day (1829–1889) and his collections of Indian fishes. Bull Brit Mus (Nat Hist) 5:1–189Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  2. 2.ZoologyNatural History MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations