Anatomical description of the genus Perryena, and proposal to erect a new family for it based on its phylogenetic relationships with related taxa (Scorpaeniformes)

Abstract

Osteological and myological characters of the genus Perryena are described and the phylogenetic position of the genus is inferred cladistically on the basis of 89 character transformation series, with Perryena representing a branch off a clade comprising the Tetrarogidae, Synanceiidae, Aploactinidae, Congiopodidae, Gnathanacanthidae and Pataecidae, following an initial divergence of the family Apistidae. Perryena is not closely related to Congiopodidae, despite its historical referral to that family. In keeping with the familial rankings given to successive branches of the remaining ingroup, the new family name Perryenidae is proposed for Perryena, here designated as the type genus of the family.

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Acknowledgments

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Prof. Mamoru Yabe (Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University) for his valuable comments on the manuscript. We are also grateful to T. Iwamoto (CAS), T. Yoshino (formerly URM) and M. McGrouther (AMS) for providing specimens. We also express our thanks to G. S. Hardy (Ngunguru, New Zealand) for English corrections. Finally, the senior author’s (Y.H.) special thanks go to his family and relatives for various assistance during his graduate-school days. This study is partly supported by “Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Asian Core Program—Establishment of research and education network on coastal marine science in Southeast Asia.”

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Correspondence to Hisashi Imamura.

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This article was registered in the Official Register of Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as 781880AB-885A-457F-B22E-BA4E89911269.

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Appendices

Appendix 1: List of 89 transformation series (TS) and characters

Shinohara and Imamura (2005), Ishii and Imamura (2008) and newly employed in this study are abbreviated as SI, II and New, respectively. TS 1 first to third infraorbitals (TS 1 of SI). 0, closely associated; 1, separate. TS 2 first and third infraorbitals (TS 2 of SI). 0, separate; 1, attached. TS 3 fourth and fifth infraorbitals (TS 9 of SI). 0, both present; 1, fourth absent; 2, both absent (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 4 sixth infraorbital (TS 10 of SI). 0, attached to sphenotic; 1, fused with sphenotic; 2, absent (unordered). TS 5 sensory canals of infraorbital (recoded from TS 11 and 12 of SI, and TS 6 of II). 0, continuous; 1, separated between third and sixth; 2 separated between fifth and sixth (unordered). TS 6 tubercles on neurocranium (TS 13 of SI). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 7 distinct spine on nasal (New). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 8 prevomer and ethmoid (TS 7 of II). 0, attached; 1, separate. TS 9 number of tooth plates on prevomer (TS 16 of SI). 0, one; 1, two; 2, none (unordered). TS 10 pterosphenoid and parasphenoid (TS 18 of SI). 0, separate; 1, connected. TS 11 basisphenoid (recoded from TS 19 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 12 posterior portion of basisphenoid (recoded from TS 19 of SI). 0, connected with prootic; 1, connected with prootic and pterosphenoid. 2, connected with pterosphenoid; 3, free from other bones (unordered). TS 13 anterior portion of basisphenoid (New). 0, connected with parasphenoid; 1, free from parasphenoid. TS 14 parietals on both sides (New). 0, connected; 1, separated by supraoccipital; 2, separated by frontal and supraoccipital (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 15 parietal spine (TS 24 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 16 prootic and intercalar (TS 20 of SI). 0, attached; 1, separate. TS 17 sensory canals between pterotic and preopercle (TS 23 of SI). 0, continuous; 1, separate. TS 18 intercalar and posttemporal (TS 21 of SI). 0, ligamentous articulation; 1, sutured. TS 19 strong process on intercalar (New). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 20 supraoccipital crest (New). 0, distinct crest present; 1, rudimental crest present; 2, absent (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 21 ridge on supraoccipital (New). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 22 palatine, and entopterygoid and ectopterygoid [see congiopodid unambiguous synapomorphies (US) 7 of II]. 0, attached; 1, separate. TS 23 teeth on palatine (TS 30 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 24 space between metapterygoid and hyomandibula (TS 33 of SI). 0, prominent; 1, rudimentary. TS 25 ridge on metapterygoid (New). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 26 branchiostegal rays (TS 37 of SI). 0, seven; 1, six; 2, five (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 27 basihyal (TS 18 of II). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 28 interarcual cartilage (TS 38 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 29 tooth plate on third epibranchial (TS 37 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 30 number of mesial processes of first epibranchial (TS 21 of II). 0, two; 1, one. TS 31 second to fourth pharyngobranchials (TS 43 of SI). 0, separated; 1, third and fourth continuous; 2, second to fourth continuous (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 32 tooth plate on second pharyngobranchial (TS 42 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 33 lateral extrascapula (TS 45 of SI). 0, single element with three sensory openings; 1, two elements with two sensory openings; 2, single element with two sensory openings (unordered). TS 34 strong spine on posttemporal (TS 10 of II). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 35 cleithrum and coracoid (TS 46 of SI). 0, without ventromesial connection; 1, with partial ventromesial connection; 2, with complete ventrolateral connection (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 36 posterior cartilaginous band on complex element of first actinost and scapula, and that on second actinost (New). 0, separated; 1, continuous. TS 37 posterior cartilaginous bands on second and third actinosts (New). 0, continuous; 1, separate. TS 38 posterior cartilaginous bands on third and fourth actinosts (New). 0, continuous; 1, separated. TS 39 number of free lower pectoral fin rays (TS 49 of SI). 0, zero; 1, one; 2, two; 3, three (ordered as 0–1–2–3). TS 40 branched pectoral fin rays (TS 50 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 41 number of pelvic fin rays (recoded from TS 54 of SI). 0, six; 1, five; 2, four; 3, none (ordered as 0–1–2–3). TS 42 branched pelvic fin rays (TS 55 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 43 pore on pelvis (New). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 44 first vertebra (see US 8 of II). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 45 Baudelot’s ligament (TS 25 of SI). 0, originating from basioccipital; 1, originating from first vertebra; 2, absent (unordered). TS 46 number of spines on first dorsal proximal pterygiophore (recoded from TS 56 of SI). 0, two; 1, one. TS 47 number of rays supported with posteriormost proximal pterygiophores (TS 62 of SI). 0, two; 1, one. TS 48 first spine on first anal proximal pterygiophore (TS 58 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 49 ray on second anal proximal pterygiophore (TS 60 of SI). 0, spine; 1, soft ray. TS 50 dorsal fin stay (TS 66 of SI). 0, autogenous and ossified element present; 1, fused with proximal pterygiophore; 2, autogenous and cartilaginous element present; 3, absent (unordered). TS 51 anal fin stay (TS 67 of SI). 0, autogenous and ossified element present; 1, fused with proximal pterygiophore; 2, autogenous and cartilaginous element present; 3, absent (unordered). TS 52 branched dorsal and anal fin rays (TS 61 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 53 fifth hypural (TS 70 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 54 uroneural (TS 76 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 55 number of epurals (TS 77 of SI). 0, three; 1, two; 2, one (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 56 urostyle and lower hypural plate (TS 75 of SI). 0, separate; 1, fused. TS 57 urostyle and upper hypural plate (TS 74 of SI). 0, separate; 1, fused. TS 58 neural spine on second preural centrum (New). 0, short; 1, long. TS 59 second preural centrum and hemal spine (TS 73 of SI). 0, autogenous; 1, fused. TS 60 third preural centrum and hemal spine (TS 72 of SI). 0, autogenous; 1, fused. TS 61 branched caudal fin rays (TS 78 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 62 A1β (TS 80 of SI). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 63 origin of A1 (recoded from TS 79 of SI). 0, including preopercle; 1, excluding preopercle. TS 64 origin of A23 (recoded from TS 81 of SI). 0, lateral to levator arcus palatini; 1, sandwiched by levator arcus palatini; 2, mesial to levator arcus palatini (unordered). TS 65 position of adductor arcus palatini (recoded from TS 82 of SI). 0, dorsal surface of entopterygoid; 1, dorsal surface and mesial margin of entopterygoid; 2, mesial margin of entopterygoid; 3, ventral surface of entopterygoid (ordered as 0–1–2–3). TS 66 origin of levator operculi (TS 83 of SI). 0, pterotic; 1, pterotic and posttemporal; 2, posttemporal (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 67 hyohyoides inferioris (TS 84 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 68 levator externus III (TS 89 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 69 posterior element of levator internus (TS 88 of SI). 0, posterior to obliquus dorsalis; 1, sandwiched by obliquus dorsalis. TS 70 levator posterior (TS 90 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 71 anterior portion of transversus dorsalis anterior (TS 85 of SI). 0, branched; 1, unbranched. TS 72 posterior portion of transversus dorsalis anterior (TS 86 of SI). 0, unbranched; 1, branched, not continuous with anterior branch of same muscle; 2, branched, continuous with anterior branch of same muscle, comprising circular muscle elements (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 73 transversus ventralis anterior and posterior (TS 92 of SI). 0, overlapping; 1, separated. TS 74 transversus ventralis posterior (TS 93 of SI). 0, with tendon anteriorly; 1, without tendon anteriorly. TS 75 adductores IIII (TS 91 of SI). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 76 division of bundles of adductor superficialis serving free pectoral fin rays (TS 95 of SI). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 77 origin of coracoradialis (TS 96 of SI). 0, coracoid; 1, coracoid and cleithrum. TS 78 extensor proprius (TS 98 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 79 inclinator dorsalis associated with first dorsal spine (TS 106 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 80 inclinator analis inserted onto first anal proximal pterygiophore (New). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 81 supracarinalis anterior (TS 105 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 82 flexor ventralis externus (TS 99 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 83 adductor dorsalis (TS 100 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 84 obliquus superioris (TS 103 of SI). 0, extending to neurocranium; 1, not extending to neurocranium. TS 85 body scales (TS 111 of SI). 0, present; 1, absent. TS 86 spines on body scales (TS 38 of II). 0, absent; 1, present. TS 87 gill membranes (TS 107 of SI). 0, free from isthmus; 1, narrowly fused with isthmus, gill opening wide; 2, broadly fused with isthmus, gill opening narrow (ordered as 0–1–2). TS 88 lateral line (TS 109 of SI). 0, with scales; 1, with tube-like bones. TS 89 spines on lateral line scales (TS 110 of SI). 0, absent; 1, present.

Appendix 2

See Table 1

Table 1 Matrix of characters in 89 transformation series of Perryena and related taxa

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Honma, Y., Imamura, H. & Kawai, T. Anatomical description of the genus Perryena, and proposal to erect a new family for it based on its phylogenetic relationships with related taxa (Scorpaeniformes). Ichthyol Res 60, 122–141 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-012-0321-z

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Keywords

  • Anatomy
  • Perryena leucometopon
  • Perryenidae fam. nov.
  • Phylogenetic relationships
  • Cladistics