Advertisement

Ichthyological Research

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 140–155 | Cite as

Hongeo, a new skate genus (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), with redescription of the type species

  • Choong-Hoon Jeong
  • Tetsuji Nakabo
Full Paper

Abstract

Hongeo gen. nov. is proposed following examinations of several individuals, including adult males, of the type species Raja koreana, previously described from a single adult female specimen from the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. A number of external (including claspers, squamation, and ampullary and lateral line canal systems) and skeletal characters are newly described. The phylogenetic position of R. koreana among 26 nominal rajid supraspecific taxa plus 2 unnamed supraspecific taxa of Rajidae and 3 outgroups was estimated. According to a strict consensus tree of 20 equally parsimonious trees of 139 steps (CI = 0.626; RI = 0.850; RC = 0.532; HI = 0.374), Hongeo gen. nov. is defined by the two derived character states: rostral cartilage continuous with neurocranium and stout proximally, but very slender and uncalcified distally; and anterior fontanelle broad, extending forward onto the basal part of rostral cartilage slightly beyond the leading edge of nasal capsules. The new genus also differs from all other supraspecific taxa of Rajidae in the following combination of characters: dorsal surface of tail with a row of distinct thorns along midline in both sexes; most thorns directed anteriorly; a pair of longitudinally elongated black blotches having undulated contours on middle of dorsal surface of disc; three groups of outer buccal ampullae and tubules; three groups of nasal ampullae and tubules; hyoidean ampullae and tubules on ventral surface posteriorly extending past cloaca; rostral shaft narrow with filamentous cartilage at base; scapulocoracoid comparatively short and high with dorsoventrally elliptical anterior fenestra and expanded postventral fenestra; external margin of mesopterygium of pectoral fin slightly undulated, not sinuous, and not fused with pectoral radials; and clasper component eperon and pent present.

Keywords

Rajidae Hongeokoreana New genus Phylogenetic position Redescription 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for specimen loans and/or assistance with literature from R. Ishiyama (formerly MTUF) and H. Ishihara (W&I Associates Corporation), K. Amaoka (formerly HUMZ), K. Nakaya (HUMZ), K. Matsuura (NSMT), K. Hatooka (OMNH), K. Nishida (OAK), S. Shirai (FRA), K. Sato (OCA), Q.-W. Meng (formerly SFC), H.-L. Wu and J.-S. Zhong (SFC), M.F.W. Stehmann (ICHTHYS), J.D. McEachran (TAMU), P.R. Last (CSIRO), B. Séret (MNHN), and M.R. de Carvalho (USP). Our thanks go to K. Nakayama (FAKU), R. Doiuchi (WFES), and S.-M. Kweon (NIBR) for their helpful advice on MacClade and PAUP*, and G. Hardy (Whangarei, New Zealand) for his comments and English corrections.

References

  1. Bigelow HB, Schroeder WC (1953) Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays. In: Tee-Van J, Breder CM, Hildebrand SF, Parr AE, Schroeder WC (eds) Fishes of western North Atlantic. Part 2. Sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates and rays, and chimaeroids. Mem Sears Found Mar Res 1, Yale University, New Haven, CT, pp 1–514Google Scholar
  2. Chu YT, Meng QW (1979) A study of the lateral-line canals system and that of Lorenzini ampullae and tubules of elasmobranchiate fishes of China. Monograph of fishes of China, No 2. Science and Technology Press, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  3. Compagno LJV (1977) Phyletic relationship of living sharks and rays. Am Zool 17:303–322Google Scholar
  4. Compagno LJV (2005) Checklist of living Chondrichthyes. In: Hamlett WC (ed) Reproductive biology and phylogeny of Chondrichthyes: sharks, batoids and chimaeras. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 503–548Google Scholar
  5. de Carvalho MR, Maisey JG, Grande L (2004) Freshwater stingrays of the Green River Formation of Wyoming (Early Eocene), with the description of a new genus and species and an analysis of its phylogenetic relationships (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes). Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 284:1–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ebert DA, Compagno LJV (2007) Biodiversity and systematics of skates (Chondrichthyes: Rajiformes: Rajoidei). Environ Biol Fish 80:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ewart JC, Mitchell JC (1891) On the lateral sense organs of elasmobranchs. II. The sensory canals of the common skate (Raja batis). Trans R Soc Edin 37:87–105Google Scholar
  8. Garman S (1913) The Plagiostomia (sharks, skates, and rays). Mem Mus Comp Zool Harvard Coll 36:1–515, pls 1–75Google Scholar
  9. Haswell WA (1884) Studies on the elasmobranch skeleton. Proc Lim Soc NS Wales 9:71–119Google Scholar
  10. Hubbs CL, Ishiyama R (1968) Methods for the taxonomic study and description of skates (Rajidae). Copeia 1968:483–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hulley PA (1972a) The origin, interrelationship and distribution of southern African Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Ann S Afr Mus 60:1–103Google Scholar
  12. Hulley PA (1972b) The family Gurgesiellidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei), with reference to Pseudoraja atlantica Bigelow and Schroeder. Copeia 1972:356–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hulley PA (1973) Interrelationships within the Anacanthobatidae (Chondrichthyes, Rajoidea), with a description of the lectotype of Anacanthobatis marmoratus Von Bonde and Swart, 1923. Ann S Afr Mus 62:131–158Google Scholar
  14. Ishihara H (1987) Revision of the western North Pacific species of the genus Raja. Jpn J Ichthyol 34:241–285Google Scholar
  15. Ishihara H (1991) Biogeography of the skates of the family Rajidae. Aquabiol 13:280–286Google Scholar
  16. Ishihara H, Ishiyama R (1986) Systematics and distribution of the skates of the North Pacific (Chondrichthyes, Rajoidei). In: Uyeno T, Arai R, Taniuchi T, Matsuura K (eds) Indo-Pacific fish biology: proceedings of the second international conference on Indo-Pacific fishes. Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo, pp 269–280Google Scholar
  17. Ishiyama R (1958) Studies on the rajid fishes (Rajidae) found in the waters around Japan. J Shimonoseki Coll Fish 7:193–394Google Scholar
  18. Jacob BA, McEachran JD, Lyons PI (1994) Electric organs in skates: variation and phylogenetic significance (Chondrichthyes: Rajoidei). J Morph 221:45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jeong CH, Nakabo T (1997) Raja koreana, a new species of skate (Elasmobranchii, Rajoidei) from Korea. Ichthyol Res 44:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lamont A (1916) The lateral sense organs of elasmobranchs: the ampullary canals of the genus Raja. Trans R Soc Edin 51:467–493Google Scholar
  21. Last PR, McEachran JD (2006) New softnose skate genus Brochiraja from New Zealand (Rajidae: Arhynchobatinae) with description of four new species. NZ J Mar Freshw Res 40:65–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Last PR, Yearsley GK (2002) Zoogeography and relationships of Australasian skates (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). J Biogeogr 29:1627–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Linnaeus C (1758) Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata, HolmiaeGoogle Scholar
  24. Maddison DR, Maddison WP (2002) MacClade 4: analysis of phylogeny and character evolution. Version 4.05. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar
  25. McEachran JD (1984) Anatomical investigations of the New Zealand skates Bathyraja asperula and B. spinifera, with an evaluation of their classification within Rajoidei (Chondrichthyes). Copeia 1984:45–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McEachran JD, Aschliman N (2004) Phylogeny of Batoidea. In: Carrier JC, Musick JA, Heithaus MR (eds) Biology of sharks and their relatives. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 79–113Google Scholar
  27. McEachran JD, Compagno LJV (1979) A further description of Gurgesiella furvescens with comments on the interrelationships of Gurgesiellidae and Pseudorajidae (Pisces, Rajoidei). Bull Mar Sci 29:530–553Google Scholar
  28. McEachran JD, Dunn KA (1998) Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998:271–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McEachran JD, Konstantinou H (1996) Survey of the variation in alar and malar thorns in skates: phylogenetic implications (Chondrichthyes: Rajoidei). J Morph 228:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McEachran JD, Miyake T (1986) Interrelationships within a putative monophyletic group of skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajoidei, Rajini). In: Uyeno T, Arai R, Taniuchi T, Matsuura K (eds) Indo-Pacific fish biology: proceedings of the second international conference on Indo-Pacific fishes. Ichthyological Society of Japan, Tokyo, pp 281–290Google Scholar
  31. McEachran JD, Miyake T (1990a) Phylogenetic interrelationships of skates: a working hypothesis (Chondrichthyes, Rajoidei). NOAA Tech Rep 90:285–304Google Scholar
  32. McEachran JD, Miyake T (1990b) Zoogeography and bathymetry of skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajoidei). NOAA Tech Rep 90:305–326Google Scholar
  33. McEachran JD, Stehmann M (1984) A new species of skate, Neoraja carolinensis, from off the southeastern United States (Elasmobranchii: Rajoidei). Proc Biol Soc Wash 97:724–735Google Scholar
  34. Miyake M, McEachran JD (1991) The morphology and evolution of the ventral gill arch skeleton in batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). Zool J Linn Soc 102:75–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nishida K (1990) Phylogeny of the suborder Myliobatidoidei. Mem Fac Fish Hokkaido Univ 37:1–108Google Scholar
  36. Raschi W (1986) A morphological analysis of the ampullae of Lorenzini in selected skates (Pisces, Rajoidei). J Morph 189:225–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shirai S (1992) Squalean phylogeny: a new framework of “squaloid” sharks and related taxa. Hokkaido University Press, SapporoGoogle Scholar
  38. Stehmann M (1970) Vergleichend morphologische und anatomische Untersuchungen zur Neuordnung der Systematik der nordostatlantischen Rajidae (Chondrichthyes, Batoidei). Arch Fisch Wiss 21:73–164Google Scholar
  39. Stehmann M, Bürkel DL (1984) Rajidae. In: Whitehead PJP, Bauchot M-L, Hureau J-C, Nielsen J, Tortones E (eds) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, vol I. UNESCO, Paris, pp 163–196Google Scholar
  40. Swofford DS (2002) PAUP*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (and other methods). 4.0 beta version. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oceanography, Research Center for Coastal Environments of Yellow SeaInha UniversityIncheonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.The Kyoto University MuseumKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations