Ichthyological Research

, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp 333–349

Review of spino-occipital and spinal nerves in Tetraodontiformes, with special reference to pectoral and pelvic fin muscle innervation



The spino-occipital nerve (SO) and ventral rami of the spinal nerves (SV) in 10 tetraodontiform families and 5 outgroup taxa were examined, with special reference to pectoral and pelvic fin muscle innervation. Compared with the outgroup taxa, tetraodontiforms were characteristic in having SO3 + SV1 (SO3 in tetraodontids) that gave off several lateral subbranches to the pectoral fin base and SO participation in infracarinalis anterior innervation. SO and SV1 were connected with one another (6 patterns) before entering the pectoral fin muscles in most species, including the outgroup taxa, resulting in the participation of SV1 in the innervation of almost all of the pectoral fin muscles. SO3 + SV1 was present in all tetraodontiforms (except in 2 tetraodontids having only SO3) and the outgroup taxa, an upper dorsal branch uniformly extending dorsally into the pectoral fin base. The pectoral fin base also received a branch ventrally, but its identity differed (participation or nonparticipation of SV2). SV1 alone constituting the branch was a derived condition occurring in Aracanidae, Ostraciidae, Tetraodontidae, Diodontidae, and Molidae. No strong characters supporting a tetraodontiform sister group were recognized among the spino-occipital nerve and ventral rami of spinal nerves.

Key words

Tetraodontiformes Spino-occipital nerve Spinal nerves Muscle innervation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bass, AL, Dewar, H, Thys, T, Streelman, JT, Karl, SA 2005Evolutionary divergence among lineages of the ocean sunfish family, Molidae (Tetraodontiformes)Mar Biol148405414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fraser, TH, Freihofer, WC 1971Trypsin modification for Sihler technique of staining nerves for systematic studies of fishesCopeia1971574576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Herrick, CJ 1899The cranial and first spinal nerves of Menidia; a contribution upon the nerve components of the bony fishesJ Comp Neurol9153455pls 14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Holcroft, NI 2005A molecular analysis of the interrelationships of tetraodontiform fishes (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes)Mol Phylogenet Evol34525544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nakae, M, Sasaki, K 2004Homologies of the adductor mandibulae muscles in Tetraodontiformes as indicated by nerve branching patternsIchthyol Res51327336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nakae, M, Sasaki, K 2005The lateral line system and its innervation in the boxfish Ostracion immaculatus (Tetraodontiformes: Ostraciidae): description and comparisons with other tetraodontiform and perciform conditionsIchthyol Res52343353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Nakae, M, Sasaki, K 2006Peripheral nervous system of the ocean sunfish Mola mola (Tetraodontiformes: Molidae)Ichthyol Res53233246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Nelson, JS 2006Fishes of the world4th ednWileyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Parenti, LR, Song, J 1996

    Phylogenetic significance of the pectoral-pelvic fin association in acanthomorph fishes: a reassessment using comparative neuroanatomy

    Stiassny, MLJParenti, LRJohnson, GD eds. Interrelationships of fishesAcademic PressSan Diego427444
    Google Scholar
  10. Rosen, DE 1984Zeiformes as primitive plectognath fishesAm Mus Novit2782145Google Scholar
  11. Santini, F, Tyler, JC 2003A phylogeny of families of fossil and extant tetraodontiform fishes (Acanthomorpha, Tetraodontiformes), Upper Cretaceous to RecentZool J Linn Soc139565617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tyler, JC 1980Osteology, phylogeny, and higher classification of the fishes of the order Plectognathi (Tetraodontiformes)NOAA Tech Rep NMFS Circular4341422Google Scholar
  13. Tyler, JC, O'Toole, B, Winterbottom, R 2003Phylogeny of the genera and families of zeiform fishes, with comments on their relationships with tetraodontiforms and caproidsSmithson Contrib Zool6181110Google Scholar
  14. Winterbottom, R 1974The familial phylogeny of the Tetraodontiformes (Acanthopterygii: Pisces) as evidenced by their comparative myologySmithson Contrib Zool1551201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collection CenterNational Museum of Nature and ScienceTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Marine Biology, Faculty of ScienceKochi UniversityKochiJapan

Personalised recommendations