Phylogeny of the family Congiopodidae (Perciformes: Scorpaenoidea), with a proposal of new classification


The phylogenetic relationships of the family Congiopodidae are inferred based on morphological characters. The monophyly of this family is supported by 13 unambiguous apomorphic characters, including four autapomorphies among the superfamily Scorpaenoidea. The Congiopodidae shares 26 apomorphic characters with other scorpaenoid taxa, and these characters are considered to also support the monophyly of the family. Upon completion of the phylogenetic analysis using the characters in 39 transformation series, it was assumed that the family is unambiguously supported by five characters (and also by three and one characters when ACCTRAN and DELTRAN are used, respectively) and is branched into two major clades, including Congiopodus and Alertichthys plus Zanclorhynchus, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic relationships, a new classification, recognizing two subfamilies (Congiopodinae and Zanclorhynchinae) in the family Congiopodidae, is proposed. The genus Perryena, that was recently inferred being closely related to the Tetrarogidae (although many authors included it in the Congiopodidae), is provisionally placed into the Congiopodidae as incertae sedis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12


  1. Eschmeyer WN (1998) Part IV. Genera in a classification. In: Eschmeyer WN (ed) Catalog of fishes, vol 3. Calif Acad Sci, San Fransisco, pp 2449–2499

    Google Scholar 

  2. Greenwood PH, Rosen DE, Weitzman SH, Myers GS (1966) Phyletic studies of teleostean fishes, with a provisional classification of living forms. Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 131:339–456

    Google Scholar 

  3. Günther A (1880) Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873–1876. In: Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–76. Zool Rep Challenger Shore Fishes vol 1, pp 1–82, pls 1–32

  4. Imamura H (1996) Phylogeny of the family Platycephalidae and related taxa (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes). Spec Div 1:123–233

    Google Scholar 

  5. Imamura H (2004) Phylogenetic relationships and new classification of the superfamily Scorpaenoidea (Actinopterygii: Perciformes). Spec Divers 9:1–36

    Google Scholar 

  6. Imamura H, Yabe M (1998) Osteological development of the lumpfish, Inimicus japonicus (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes). Ichthyol Res 45:53–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ishida M (1994) Phylogeny of the suborder Scorpaenoidei (Pisces: Scorpaeniformes). Bull Nansei Nat Fish Res Inst 27:1–112

    Google Scholar 

  8. Leviton AE, Gibbs RH Jr, Heal E, Dawson CE (1985) Standards in herpetology and ichthyology: Part I. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology. Copeia 1985:802–832

    Google Scholar 

  9. Lloris D, Rucabado J (1991) Ictiofauna del canal Beagle (Tierra de Fuego), aspectos ecológicos y análisis biogeográfico. Publ Espec Inst Esp Oceanogr No 8, Madrid

  10. Mandrytsa SA (2001) Seismosensory system and classification of scorpionfishes (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenoidei). Perm State Univ Press, Perm

    Google Scholar 

  11. Moreland JM (1960) A new genus and species of congiopodid fish from southern New Zealand. Rec Dominion Mus 3:241–246

    Google Scholar 

  12. Nelson JS (1976) Fishes of the world. John Wiley & Sons, New York

    Google Scholar 

  13. Nelson JS (2006) Fishes of the world. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York

    Google Scholar 

  14. Paulin CD, Moreland JM (1979) Congiopodus coriaceus, a new species of pigfish, and a redescription of C. leucopaecilus (Richardson), from New Zealand (Pisces: Congiopodidae). N Z J Zool 6:601–608

    Google Scholar 

  15. Paxton JR, Hoese DF, Allen GR, Hanley JE (1989) Zoological catalogue of Australia. vol 7. Pisces. Petromyzonidae to Carangidae. Aust Govern Publ Serv, Canberra

    Google Scholar 

  16. Perry G (1810–1811) Ichthyology. In: Arcana; or The Museum of Natural History: containing the most recent discovered objects... London. unnum pp

  17. Poss GS (1994) Family Congiopodidae. In: Gomon M F, Glover JCM, Kuiter RH (eds) The fishes of Australia’s south coast. Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee. State Printer, Adelaide, pp 525–526

    Google Scholar 

  18. Springer VG, Johnson GD (2004) Study of the dorsal gill-arch musculature of teleostome fishes, with special reference to the Actinopterygii. Bull Biol Soc Wash (11):i–vi+1–260, 205 pls

  19. Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods). Version 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland

    Google Scholar 

  20. Waite ER (1922) Description of a new Australian fish of the genus Congiopodus. Rec S Aust Mus 2:215–217

    Google Scholar 

  21. Whitley GP (1940) Illustrations of some Australian fishes. Aust Zool 9:397–428, pls 30–31

    Google Scholar 

  22. Whitley GP (1952) Two new scorpion fishes from Queensland. Rec Aust Mus 23:25–28

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We express our sincere thanks to K. Nakaya and M. Yabe (HUMZ) for providing us with important comments. W. J. Richards (NOAA Fisheries Southeast Fisheries Science Center) also kindly provided valuable comments and correction of the English. We also sincerely thank M. E. Anderson (SAIAB) and M. McGrouther (AMS) for providing materials, and also the latter for information on the X-ray films used by Mandrytsa (2001).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hisashi Imamura.

About this article

Cite this article

Ishii, N., Imamura, H. Phylogeny of the family Congiopodidae (Perciformes: Scorpaenoidea), with a proposal of new classification. Ichthyol Res 55, 148–161 (2008).

Download citation


  • Phylogeny
  • Congiopodidae
  • New classification
  • Congiopodinae
  • Zanclorhynchinae