Ichthyological Research

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 145–159 | Cite as

Redescriptions of the Indo-Pacific atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii, Atherinomorus lacunosus, and Atherinomorus pinguis

  • Seishi KimuraEmail author
  • Daniel Golani
  • Yukio Iwatsuki
  • Motohiko Tabuchi
  • Tetsuo Yoshino
Full paper


The Indo-Pacific marine atherinid fishes Atherinomorus forskalii (Rüppell, 1838), Atherinomorus lacunosus (Forster, 1801), and Atherinomorus pinguis (Lacepède, 1803) are redescribed as valid species based on the types and non-type specimens collected throughout the Indo-Pacific. They are similar to each other chiefly in having a wide midlateral band (almost the same or greater than the midlateral scale width), large mouth (posterior tip of upper jaw reaching to or beyond a vertical through anterior margin of pupil), and no distinct tubercle at the posterior end of the dentary. All three species are distinguishable from congeners by those characters. The three species have long been confused with each other or synonymized erroneously as a single species. Atherinomorus forskalii, known from the Red Sea and eastern Mediterranean, differs from Atherinomorus lacunosus and Atherinomorus pinguis in having conspicuous, large endopterygoid teeth, forming obvious tooth ridges. Atherinomorus lacunosus, widely distributed in almost the entire Indo-Pacific, from East Africa to Tonga, north to southern Japan, and south to northern Australia, differs from Atherinomorus pinguis in having a wider midlateral band (the lower margin reaching to almost the center of the fourth scale row at level of the anal fin origin vs. the lower margin reaching to the ventral end of the third scale row in Atherinomorus pinguis) and more numerous midlateral scales (40–44 vs. 38–41 in Atherinomorus pinguis). Atherina morrisi Jordan and Starks, 1906, Hepsetia pinguis mineri Nichols and Roemhild, 1951, Pranesus capricornensis Woodland, 1961, Pranesus maculatus Taylor, 1964, and Pranesus pinguis ruppelli Smith, 1965, are regarded as junior synonyms of Atherinomorus lacunosus. Atherinomorus pinguis is also widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, from East Africa to northern Australia and north to southern Japan. Atherina pectoralis Valenciennes, 1835, is considered a junior synonym of Atherinomorus pinguis.

Key words

Atherinidae Indo-Pacific region Atherinomorus forskalii Atherinomorus lacunosus Atherinomorus pinguis 


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Supplementary material

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Atherinomorus forskalii. A Holotype, SMF 1898, 109 mm SL, from Jiddah, Saudi Arabia (Red Sea). B Non-type material, HUJ 5292, 113 mm SL, from Elat, Israel (Red Sea). (For a color version of this figure, see electronic supplementary material, Fig. S1)

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Atherinomorus lacunosus. A Holotype, MNHN A. 4400, 75 mm SL, from New Caledonia. B Holotype of Atherina morrisi, CAS-SU 9354, 102 mm SL, from Yaku I., Kagoshima, Japan. C Holotype of Hepsetia pinguis mineri, AMNH 19519, 79 mm SL, from Pago Pago, Samoa (photographed by T. Fukuhara). D Holotype of Pranesus capricornensis, QM I. 8201, 93 mm SL, from Heron I., Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. E Holotype of Pranesus maculatus, AMS IB.5238, 81 mm SL, from Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory, Australia. F Holotype of Pranesus pinguis ruppelli, SMF 6856, 87 mm SL, from Jidda, Saudi Arabia. G Non-type material, FRLM 26461, 106 mm SL, from Bitung, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (fresh condition). (For a color version of this figure, see electronic supplementary material, Fig. S2)

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Atherinomorus pinguis. A Neotype, SAIAB 5682, 105 mm SL, from Mauritius. B Lectotype of Atherina pectoralis, MNHN A 4305, 103 mm SL, Mauritius. C Non-type material, FRLM 28706, 86 mm SL, from Libong I., Trang, Thailand (fresh condition). (For a color version of this figure, see electronic supplementary material, Fig. S3)


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Copyright information

© The Ichthyological Society of Japan 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seishi Kimura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daniel Golani
    • 2
  • Yukio Iwatsuki
    • 3
  • Motohiko Tabuchi
    • 4
  • Tetsuo Yoshino
    • 4
  1. 1.Fisheries Research LaboratoryMie UniversityMieJapan
  2. 2.Department of Evolution, Systematics and Ecologythe Hebrew University of JerusalemIsrael
  3. 3.Division of Fisheries Sciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  4. 4.Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

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