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Table 6 Adjusted group differences on mathematics outcome measures (after controlling for age, gender, parents’ educational level, fluid intelligence, RAN, and word comprehension)

From: Patterns of symbolic numerical magnitude processing and working memory as predictors of early mathematics performance

  Weak SNMP
(n = 86)
Strong SNMP
(n = 66)
Weak SNMP & WM
(n = 60)
Strong WM
(n = 44)
F p η2p
M (se.) M (se.) M (se.) M (se.)
Counting 19.40ab (0.60) 22.61ac (0.72) 16.46bcd (0.78) 21.33d (0.87) 10.37  < .001 .14
Word problem–solving 11.16 (0.35) 12.47a (0.42) 10.07a (0.46) 11.98 (0.51) 4.68 .004 .07
Addition facts 4.545a (0.46) 8.53ab (0.55) 3.94b (0.60) 6.41 (0.67) 11.96  < .001 .16
Subtraction facts 3.51a (0.40) 6.71ab (0.49) 3.35b (0.53) 5.22 (0.60) 9.09  < .001 .13
  1. Note. Means within a row sharing the same subscript are significantly different at the p < .05 level (with Bonferroni adjustment). N in Counting and Word problem–solving: total = 201, Weak SNMP = 68, Strong SNMP = 50, Weak SNMP & WM = 46, Strong WM = 37; in Addition facts: total = 200, Weak SNMP = 67, Strong SNMP = 50, Weak SNMP & WM = 46, Strong WM = 37; in Subtraction facts: total = 198, Weak SNMP = 68, Strong SNMP = 50, Weak SNMP & WM = 45, Strong WM = 35