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The effects of teacher support, parental monitoring, motivation and self-efficacy on academic performance over time

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the contribution of teacher support and parental monitoring to academic performance over three years, testing the mediating role of self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy and establishing whether the role of teachers and parents varies over time. A total of 419 adolescents—201 males (48%) and 218 females (52%), Mage = 14.34 years (SD = .90)—attending at T1 the ninth grade of schooling participated in the study. The questionnaires were administered three times over three years in February 2016 (T1), February 2017 (T2), and February 2018 (T3). Specifically, at T1, the students answered questionnaires regarding parental monitoring and teacher support. At T2 and T3, the students completed questionnaires about self-determined motivation and academic self-efficacy. At the end of each school year, in June 2017 (T2b) and June 2018 (T3b), the teachers’ assessments of the students’ academic performance expressed in school marks were collected. A structural equation model was used to test the hypothesised longitudinal relations between the study variables. The results showed that teacher support and parental monitoring directly and positively affected motivation and self-efficacy over time, which, in turn, impacted academic performance positively. The results also indicated that teacher support and parental monitoring indirectly affected academic performance over time through the mediation of motivation and self-efficacy and that the parents’ influence was highest on motivation, while the teachers’ influence was highest on self-efficacy. These results suggest the importance of implementing interventions aimed at enhancing parental monitoring and teacher support to improve students’ academic performance.

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Notes

  1. The five subscales measure Amotivation (T2 Cronbach’s α =.88; T3 Cronbach’s α =.92), External Regulation (T2 Cronbach’s α =.79; T3 Cronbach’s α =.79), Introjected Regulation (T2 Cronbach’s α =.86; T3 Cronbach’s α =.86), Identified Regulation (T2 Cronbach’s α =.86; T3 Cronbach’s α =.88), and Intrinsic Motivation (T2 Cronbach’s α =.89; T3 Cronbach’s α =.90). The subscales were weighted as follows: Intrinsic Motivation, +2; Identified Regulation, +1; Introjected Regulation, 0; External Regulation, −1; and Amotivation, −2 (Alivernini & Lucidi, 2011; Vallerand et al., 1997).

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the students who participated in this research as well as to the principals and teachers of the participating schools for their contribution in data collection.

Funding

This research was supported by the grants (University Research 2016–2018) from the University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli” to Gaetana Affuso and Dario Bacchini, primary investigators.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation and data collection were performed by Anna Zannone and Maddalena Pannone, and data analysis was performed by Gaetana Affuso. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Gaetana Affuso, Anna Zannone, Concetta Esposito, and Dario Bacchini, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gaetana Affuso.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Gaetana Affuso. Department of Psychology, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy. E-mail address: gaetana.affuso@unicampania.it

Current themes of research:

Violence exposure in adolescence. Moral development. School bullying. Adolescent antisocial behaviour. Parenting styles in childhood and adolescence. Academic achievement.

Anna Zannone. Department of Psychology, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy. E-mail address: zannoneanna@gmail.com

Current themes of research:

Academic self-efficacy and academic achievement.

Concetta Esposito. Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Italy. E-mail address: concetta.esposito3@unina.it

Current themes of research:

Risk factors and developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence, including community violence exposure, self-regulatory abilities, aggressive and antisocial behaviour, and school bullying.

Maddalena Pannone. Department of Psychology, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy. E-mail address: magdipan@hotmail.it

Current themes of research:

Self-determined motivation and academic achievement.

Maria Concetta Miranda. Adolescent Psychopathology Center, Mental Health Department ASL Napoli 2 Nord, Napoli, Italy. E-mail address: mariaconcetta.miranda@aslnapoli2nord.it

Current themes of research:

Parenting practices in a cross-cultural perspective. Internalising and Externalizing problems. Academic achievement.

Grazia De Angelis. Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Italy. E-mail address: grazia.deangelis2@gmail.com

Current themes of research:

Moral development. Cognitive distortions. School bullying and adolescent antisocial behaviour.

Serena Aquilar. Department of Psychology, University of Campania “L. Vanvitelli”, Caserta, Italy. E-mail address: sereaquilar@yahoo.it

Current themes of research:

Personal values. Judgment of wrongness. Antisocial behaviour and violence exposure in adolescence.

Mirella Dragone. Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Italy. E-mail address: mirella.dragone@unina.it

Current themes of research:

Precursors and outcomes associated with the development of antisocial behaviours in adolescence. School bullying.

Dario Bacchini. Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Napoli, Italy. E-mail address: dario.bacchini@unina.it

Current themes of research:

Moral development, Bullying at school. At risk behaviors during adolescence. Parenting practices in a cross-cultural perspective and academic achievement

Most relevant international publications in the field of Psychology of Education:

Bacchini, D., Affuso, G., & Trotta, T. (2008). Temperament, adhd and peer relations among school children: The mediating role of school bullying. Aggressive Behavior,34, 447-459. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20271.

Bacchini, D., Esposito, G., & Affuso, G. (2009). Social experience and school bullying. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 19, 17-32. https://doi.org/10.1002/casp.975

Bacchini, D., Affuso, G., Aquilar, S., Miranda, M.C. (2013). Personal and environmental predictors of school bullying and its emotional consequences. In K. Dekker, M. Dijkstra (eds.), School Bullying: Predictive Factors, Coping Strategies and Effects on Mental Health, pp. 37-68. Nova publishers: NY. ISBN: 978-1-62808-809-0

De Angelis, G., Bacchini, D., Affuso, G. (2016). The mediating role of domain judgement in the relation between the Big Five and bullying behaviours. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 16-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.10.029.

Affuso, G., Bacchini, D., & Miranda, M. C. (2017). The contribution of school-related parental monitoring, self-determination, and self-efficacy to academic achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 110, 565-574. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2016.1149795.

Esposito, C., Bacchini, D., & Affuso, G. (2019). Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury and its relationships with school bullying and peer rejection. Psychiatry Research, 274, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.02.018

Dragone, M., Esposito, C., De Angelis, G., Affuso, G., & Bacchini, D. (2020). Pathways linking exposure to community violence, self-serving cognitive distortions and school bullying perpetration: A three-wave study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 188. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010188.

Bacchini, D., Esposito, C., Affuso, G., & Amodeo, A. L. (2020). The impact of personal values, gender stereotypes, and school climate on homophobic bullying: A multilevel analysis. Sexuality Research and Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-020-00484-4.

Esposito, C., Affuso, G., & Amodeo, A. L., Dragone, M., & Bacchini, D. (2021). Bullying victimization: Investigating the unique contribution of homophobic bias on dolescent non-suicidal self-injury and the buffering role of school support. School Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-021-09434-w

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Affuso, G., Zannone, A., Esposito, C. et al. The effects of teacher support, parental monitoring, motivation and self-efficacy on academic performance over time. Eur J Psychol Educ 38, 1–23 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-021-00594-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-021-00594-6

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