In this review, we evaluate the claim that translanguaging in the classroom supports the development of the bilingual lexicon by enhancing cross-linguistic transfer. To address this issue, we integrate findings from psycholinguistics and educational sciences in order to identify how effective pedagogical practices for monolingual children can be extended to pedagogical practices for bilingual children. We show that both monolingual and bilingual children benefit from teaching strategies that strengthen the mental connections between semantically and phonologically related words, and that for bilingual children, these strategies should support both within- and cross-language connections. We argue that by stimulating the use of the home language in the classroom, translanguaging strategies like multilingual label quests and multilingual reading and writing can strengthen cross-language connections and, thereby, facilitate cross-linguistic lexical transfer. For closely related languages, stimulation of the home language has the additional benefit of implicitly facilitating the transfer of cognate vocabulary. Explicit instruction about cognates could further stimulate the development of cognate awareness, but whether it also enhances vocabulary learning is still an open question.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Availability of data and material
Arias-Trejo, N., & Plunkett, K. (2009). Lexical–semantic priming effects during infancy. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society b: Biological Sciences, 364(1536), 3633–3647.
Armon-Lotem, S., Restrepo, M. A., Lipner, M., Ahituv-Shlomo, P., & Altman, C. (2021). Vocabulary gains in bilingual narrative intervention. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 52, 436–448.
Arteagoitia, I., & Howard, L. (2015). The role of the native language in the literacy development of Latino students in the US. In J. Cenoz & D. Gorter (Eds.), Multilingual Education: between Language Learning and Translanguaging (pp. 61–83). Cambridge University Press.
Arthur, J., & Martin, P. (2006). Accomplishing lessons in postcolonial classrooms: Comparative perspectives from Botswana and Brunei Darussalam. Comparative Education, 42(2), 177–202.
Baker, C. (2001). Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (3rd ed.). Multilingual Matters.
Bales, M. E., & Johnson, S. B. (2006). Graph theoretic modeling of large-scale semantic networks. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 39(4), 451–464.
Barnett, W. S., Yarosz, D. J., Thomas, J., Jung, K., & Blanco, D. (2007). Two-way and monolingual English immersion in preschool education: An experimental comparison. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22(3), 277–293.
Beckage, N., Smith, L., & Hills, T. (2011). Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers. PloS ONE, 6(5), e19348.
Bialystok, E., Luk, G., Peets, K. F., & Yang, S. (2010). Receptive vocabulary differences in monolingual and bilingual children. Bilingualism (cambridge, England), 13(4), 525–531.
Biemiller, A., & Boote, C. (2006). An effective method for building meaning vocabulary in primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 44–62.
Bilson, S., Yoshida, H., Tran, C. D., Woods, E. A., & Hills, T. T. (2015). Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition. Cognition, 140, 122–134.
Bleses, D., Makransky, G., Dale, P. S., Højen, A., & Ari, B. A. (2016). Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(6), 1461–1476.
Booth, A. E. (2009). Causal supports for early word learning. Child Development, 80(4), 1243–1250.
Borodkin, K., Kenett, Y. N., Faust, M., & Mashal, N. (2016). When pumpkin is closer to onion than to squash: The structure of the second language lexicon. Cognition, 156, 60–70.
Borovsky, A., Ellis, E. M., Evans, J. L., & Elman, J. L. (2016a). Semantic structure in vocabulary knowledge interacts with lexical and sentence processing in infancy. Child Development, 87(6), 1893–1908.
Borovsky, A., Ellis, E. M., Evans, J. L., & Elman, J. L. (2016b). Lexical leverage: Category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in 2-year-olds. Developmental Science, 19(6), 918–932.
Bosch, L., & Ramon-Casas, M. (2014). First translation equivalents in bilingual toddlers’ expressive vocabulary: Does form similarity matter? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(4), 317–322.
Bosma, E., & Nota, N. (2020). Cognate facilitation in Frisian–Dutch bilingual children’s sentence reading: An eye-tracking study. Journal of experimental child psychology, 189, 104699.
Bosma, E., Blom, E., Hoekstra, E., & Versloot, A. (2019). A longitudinal study on the gradual cognate facilitation effect in bilingual children’s Frisian receptive vocabulary. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 22(4), 371-385.
Brenders, P., Van Hell, J. G., & Dijkstra, T. (2011). Word recognition in child second language learners: Evidence from cognates and false friends. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109(4), 383–396.
Carlo, M. S., August, D., McLaughlin, B., Snow, C. E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D. N., … & White, C. E. (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(4), 188–215.
Celic, C., & Seltzer, K. (2012). Translanguaging: A CUNY-NYSIEB Tuide for Educators. CUNYNYSIEB.
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2017). Translanguaging as a pedagogical tool in multilingual education. Language Awareness and Multilingualism. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 6, 309–321.
Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2020). Teaching English through pedagogical translanguaging. World Englishes, 39(2), 300–311.
Chen, X., Ramirez, G., Luo, Y. C., Geva, E., & Ku, Y. M. (2012). Comparing vocabulary development in Spanish-and Chinese-speaking ELLs: The effects of metalinguistic and sociocultural factors. Reading and Writing, 25(8), 1991–2020.
Comesaña, M., Moreira, A. J., Valente, D., Hernández-Cabrera, J. A., & Soares, A. P. (2019). List composition effect on cognate and non-cognate word acquisition in children. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 9(2), 289–313.
Comesaña, M., Soares, A. P., Sánchez-Casas, R., & Lima, C. (2012). Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: Evidence from two learning methods in children. British Journal of Psychology, 103(3), 378–392.
Corthals, P. (2010). Nine-to twelve-year olds’ metalinguistic awareness of homonymy. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 45(1), 121–128.
Coyne, M. D., McCoach, D. B., & Kapp, S. (2007). Vocabulary intervention for kindergarten students: Comparing extended instruction to embedded instruction and incidental exposure. Learning Disability Quarterly, 30(2), 74–88.
Coyne, M. D., McCoach, D. B., Loftus, S., Zipoli, R., Jr., & Kapp, S. (2009). Direct vocabulary instruction in kindergarten: Teaching for breadth versus depth. The Elementary School Journal, 110(1), 1–18.
Creese, A., & Blackledge, A. (2010). Translanguaging in the bilingual classroom: A pedagogy for learning and teaching? The Modern Language Journal, 94(1), 103–115.
Cremer, M., & Schoonen, R. (2013). The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(6), 1195–1217.
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222–251.
Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. Modern Language Journal, 89(4), 585–592.
Cummins, J. (2008). Teaching for transfer: Challenging the two solitudes assumption in bilingual education. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 5, 65–75.
Cunningham, T. H., & Graham, C. (2000). Increasing native English vocabulary recognition through Spanish immersion: Cognate transfer from foreign to first language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 37–49.
Dam, Q., Pham, G. T., Pruitt-Lord, S., Limon-Hernandez, J., & Goodwiler, C. (2020). Capitalizing on cross-language similarities in intervention with bilingual children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 87, 106004.
D’Angelo, N., Hipfner-Boucher, K., & Chen, X. (2017). Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness. Developmental Psychology, 53(7), 1242–1255.
David, A., & Li, L. (2008). Individual differences in the lexical development of French-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(5), 598–618.
DeAnda, S., & Friend, M. (2020). Lexical-semantic development in bilingual toddlers at 18 and 24 months. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 3500.
De Houwer, A. (1990). The acquisition of two languages from birth: A case study. Cambridge University Press.
Dickinson, D. K., Nesbitt, K. T., Collins, M. F., Hadley, E. B., Newman, K., Rivera, B. L., … & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2019). Teaching for breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Learning from explicit and implicit instruction and the storybook texts. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 47, 341–356.
Dijkstra, A. F. J., & Van Heuven, W. J. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(2), 175–197.
Dressler, C., Carlo, M. S., Snow, C. E., August, D., & White, C. E. (2011). Spanish-speaking students’ use of cognate knowledge to infer the meaning of English words. Bilingualism, 14(2), 243–255.
Duarte, J., & Van der Meij, M. (2018). A holistic model for multilingualism in education. EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages, 5(2), 24–43.
Durán, L., Roseth, C., Hoffman, P., & Robertshaw, M. B. (2013). Spanish-speaking preschoolers’ early literacy development: A longitudinal experimental comparison of predominantly English and transitional bilingual education. Bilingual Research Journal, 36(1), 6–34.
Edwards, H. T., & Kirkpatrick, A. G. (1999). Metalinguistic awareness in children: A developmental progression. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 28(4), 313–329.
Floccia, C., DelleLuche, C., Lepadatu, I., Chow, J., Ratnage, P., & Plunkett, K. (2020). Translation equivalent and cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. Journal of Memory and Language, 112, 104086.
García, O. (2009). Bilingual Education in the 21st Century: A Global Perspective. John Wiley & Sons.
García, O., & Lin, A. M. (2017). Translanguaging in bilingual education. In Bilingual and Multilingual Education (pp. 117–130). Springer.
García, O., & Li, L. (2014). Language, bilingualism and education. In Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education (pp. 46–62). Palgrave Macmillan.
García, O., & Li, L. (2015). Translanguaging, bilingualism, and bilingual education. In The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education (pp. 223–240). Palgrave Macmillan.
Genesee, F. (1984). On Cummins’ theoretical framework. In NOTE 100p.; Selected papers of the Language Proficiency Assessment Symposium (pp. 39–46). Warrenton, VA, March 14–18.
Goldinger, S. D., Luce, P. A., & Pisoni, D. B. (1989). Priming lexical neighbors of spoken words: Effects of competition and inhibition. Journal of Memory and Language, 28(5), 501–518.
Goodrich, J. M., Lonigan, C. J., Kleuver, C. G., & Farver, J. M. (2016). Development and transfer of vocabulary knowledge in Spanish-speaking language minority preschool children. Journal of Child Language, 43(5), 969–992.
Günther-van der Meij, M., Duarte, J., & Nap, L. (2020). Including multiple languages in secondary education: A translanguaging approach. European Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8(1), 73–106.
Hadley, E. B., Dickinson, D. K., Hirsh-Pasek, K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2019). Building semantic networks: The impact of a vocabulary intervention on preschoolers’ depth of word knowledge. Reading Research Quarterly, 54(1), 41–61.
Hancin-Bhatt, B., & Nagy, W. (1994). Lexical transfer and second language morphological development. Applied Psycholinguistics, 15(3), 289–310.
Harley, B., Hart, D., & Lapkin, S. (1986). The effects of early bilingual schooling on first language skills. Applied Psycholinguistics, 7(4), 295–321.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Brookes Publishing.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J., Sheya, A., & Smith, L. (2009). Longitudinal analysis of early semantic networks: Preferential attachment or preferential acquisition? Psychological Science, 20(6), 729–739.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, J., Riordan, B., & Smith, L. B. (2010). The associative structure of language: Contextual diversity in early word learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 63(3), 259–273.
Hipfner-Boucher, K., Pasquarella, A., Chen, X., & Deacon, S. H. (2016). Cognate awareness in French immersion students: Contributions to grade 2 reading comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading, 20(5), 389–400.
Hoff, E. (2013). Interpreting the early language trajectories of children from low-SES and language minority homes: Implications for closing achievement gaps. Developmental Psychology, 49(1), 4–14.
Hornberger, N. H., & Link, H. (2012). Translanguaging and transnational literacies in multilingual classrooms: A biliteracy lens. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15(3), 261–278.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2011). Explanations of associations between L1 and L2 literacy skills. Modeling Bilingualism: From Structure to Chaos, 85–111.
Jacobson, R., & Faltis, C. (Eds.). (1990). Language Distribution Issues in Bilingual Schooling (Vol. 56). Multilingual matters.
Jardak, A., & Byers-Heinlein, K. (2019). Labels or concepts? The development of semantic networks in bilingual two-year-olds. Child Development, 90(2), e212–e229.
Jared, D., Cormier, P., Levy, B. A., & Wade-Woolley, L. (2012). Cross-language activation of phonology in young bilingual readers. Reading and Writing, 25(6), 1327–1343.
Junker, D. A., & Stockman, I. J. (2002). Expressive Vocabulary of German-English Bilingual Toddlers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 381–394.
Kelley, A., & Kohnert, K. (2012). Is there a cognate advantage for typically developing Spanish-speaking English-language learners? Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(2), 191–204.
Köppe, R. (1996). Language differentiation in bilingual children: The development of grammatical and pragmatic competence. Linguistics, 34(5), 927–954.
Lanza, E. (1992). Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch? Journal of Child Language, 19(3), 633–658.
Leacox, L., & Jackson, C. W. (2014). Spanish vocabulary-bridging technology-enhanced instruction for young English language learners’ word learning. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 14(2), 175–197.
Legacy, J., Zesiger, P., Friend, M., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2016). Vocabulary size, translation equivalents, and efficiency in word recognition in very young bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 43(4), 760–783.
Legacy, J., Reider, J., Crivello, C., Kuzyk, O., Friend, M., Zesiger, P., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2017). Dog or chien? Translation equivalents in the receptive and expressive vocabularies of young French-English bilinguals. Journal of Child Language, 44(4), 881–904.
Leonet, O., Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2020). Developing morphological awareness across languages: Translanguaging pedagogies in third language acquisition. Language Awareness, 29(2), 41–59.
Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker, C. (2012). Translanguaging: Origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(7), 641–654.
Li, W. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space: Discursive construction of identities by multilingual Chinese youth in Britain. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235.
Li, W. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 9–30.
Lucas, M. (2000). Semantic priming without association: A meta-analytic review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7(4), 618–630.
Lugo-Neris, M. J., Jackson, C. W., & Goldstein, H. (2010). Facilitating vocabulary acquisition of young English language learners. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41(3), 314–327.
Malabonga, V., Kenyon, D. M., Carlo, M., August, D., & Louguit, M. (2008). Development of a cognate awareness measure for Spanish-speaking English language learners. Language Testing, 25(4), 495–519.
Mani, N., & Plunkett, K. (2011). Phonological priming and cohort effects in toddler. Cognition, 121(2), 196–206.
Marslen-Wilson, W., & Zwitserlood, P. (1989). Accessing spoken words: The importance of word onsets. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15(3), 576–585.
Martin, P. W. (1999). Close encounters of a bilingual kind: Interactional practices in the primary classroom in Brunei. International Journal of Educational Development, 19(2), 127–140.
McKeown, M. G., & Beck, I. L. (2014). Effects of vocabulary instruction on measures of language processing: Comparing two approaches. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 520–530.
Meisel, J. M. (Ed.). (2010). Two First Languages: Early Grammatical Development in Bilingual Children (Vol. 10). Walter de Gruyter.
Melby-Lervåg, M., & Lervåg, A. (2011). Cross-linguistic transfer of oral language, decoding, phonological awareness and reading comprehension: A meta-analysis of the correlational evidence. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(1), 114–135.
Méndez, L. I., Crais, E. R., Castro, D. C., & Kainz, K. (2015). A culturally and linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for young Latino dual language learners. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58(1), 93–106.
Méndez, L. I., Crais, E. R., & Kainz, K. (2018). The impact of individual differences on a bilingual vocabulary approach for Latino preschoolers. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61(4), 897–909.
Méndez Pérez, A. M., Peña, E. D., & Bedore, L. M. (2010). Cognates facilitate word recognition in young Spanish-English bilinguals’ test performance. Early Childhood Services (San Diego, Calif.), 4(1), 55–67.
Moody, S. M., Matthews, S. D., & Eslami, Z. R. (2021). Translanguaging During Shared Read Alouds: A Case Study. Literacy Research and Instruction, 1–24.
Muñoz, C., Cadierno, T., & Casas, I. (2018). Different starting points for English language learning: A comparative study of Danish and Spanish young learners. Language Learning, 68(4), 1076–1109.
Nagy, W. E., García, G. E., Durgunoğlu, A. Y., & Hancin-Bhatt, B. (1993). Spanish-English bilingual students’ use of cognates in English reading. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25(3), 241–259.
Nation, K., & Snowling, M. J. (1999). Developmental differences in sensitivity to semantic relations among good and poor comprehenders: Evidence from semantic priming. Cognition, 70(1), B1–B13.
Ndhlovu, F. (2015). Ignored lingualism: Another resource for overcoming the monolingual mindset in language education policy. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 35(4), 398–414.
Nelson, D. G. K., O’Neil, K. A., & Asher, Y. M. (2008). A mutually facilitative relationship between learning names and learning concepts in preschool children: The case of artifacts. Journal of Cognition and Development, 9(2), 171–193.
Neuman, S. B., & Dwyer, J. (2011). Developing vocabulary and conceptual knowledge for low-income preschoolers: A design experiment. Journal of Literacy Research, 43(2), 103–129.
Neuman, S. B., Newman, E. H., & Dwyer, J. (2011). Educational effects of a vocabulary intervention on preschoolers’ word knowledge and conceptual development: A cluster-randomized trial. Reading Research Quarterly, 46(3), 249–272.
Oller, D. K., Pearson, B. Z., & Cobo-Lewis, A. B. (2007). Profile effects in early bilingual language and literacy. Applied Psycholinguistics, 28(2), 191–230.
Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2019). A translanguaging view of the linguistic system of bilinguals. Applied Linguistics Review, 10(4), 625–651.
Otwinowska, A. (2016). Cognate Vocabulary in Language Acquisition and Use: Attitudes, Awareness, Activation (Vol. 93). Multilingual Matters.
Otwinowska, A., Foryś-Nogala, M., Kobosko, W., & Szewczyk, J. (2020). Learning orthographic cognates and non-cognates in the classroom: Does awareness of cross-linguistic similarity matter? Language Learning, 70(3), 685–731.
Ouellette, G. P. (2006). What’s meaning got to do with it: The role of vocabulary in word reading and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 554–556.
Paré, G., Trudel, M. C., Jaana, M., & Kitsiou, S. (2015). Synthesizing information systems knowledge: A typology of literature reviews. Information & Management, 52(2), 183–199.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1993). Lexical development in bilingual infants and toddlers: Comparison to monolingual norms. Language Learning, 43(1), 93–120.
Pearson, B. Z., Fernández, S. C., & Oller, D. K. (1995). Cross-language synonyms in the lexicons of bilingual infants: One language or two? Journal of Child Language, 22, 345–368.
Penno, J. F., Wilkinson, I. A., & Moore, D. W. (2002). Vocabulary acquisition from teacher explanation and repeated listening to stories: Do they overcome the Matthew effect? Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 23–33.
Perozzi, J. A. (1985). A pilot study of language facilitation for bilingual, language-handicapped children: Theoretical and intervention implications. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 50(4), 403–406.
Perozzi, J. A., & Chavez Sanchez, M. L. (1992). The effect of instruction in L1 on receptive acquisition of L2 for bilingual children with language delay. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 23(4), 348–352.
Petitto, L. A. (2009). New discoveries from the bilingual brain and mind across the life span: Implications for education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 3(4), 185–197.
Petitto, L. A., Katerelos, M., Levy, B. G., Gauna, K., Tétreault, K., & Ferraro, V. (2001). Bilingual signed and spoken language acquisition from birth: Implications for the mechanisms underlying early bilingual language acquisition. Journal of Child Language, 28(2), 453–496.
Poarch, G. J., & Van Hell, J. G. (2012). Cross-language activation in children’s speech production: Evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111(3), 419–438.
Poulin-Dubois, D., Bialystok, E., Blaye, A., Polonia, A., & Yott, J. (2013). Lexical access and vocabulary development in very young bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17(1), 57–70.
Poulin-Dubois, D., Kuzyk, O., Legacy, J., Zesiger, P., & Friend, M. (2018). Translation equivalents facilitate lexical access in very young bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 21(4), 856–866.
Proctor, C. P., & Mo, E. (2009). The relationship between cognate awareness and English comprehension among Spanish-English bilingual fourth grade students. TESOL Quarterly, 43(1), 126–136.
Proctor, C. P., Uccelli, P., Dalton, B., & Snow, C. E. (2009). Understanding depth of vocabulary online with bilingual and monolingual children. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25(4), 311–333.
Puimège, E., & Peters, E. (2019). Learners’ English vocabulary knowledge prior to formal instruction: The role of learner-related and word-related variables. Language Learning, 69(4), 943–977.
Ramírez, G., Chen, X., & Pasquarella, A. (2013). Cross-linguistic transfer of morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: The facilitating effect of cognate knowledge. Topics in Language Disorders, 33(1), 73–92.
Read, K., Contreras, P. D., Rodriguez, B., & Jara, J. (2020). ¿Read Conmigo?: The Effect of Code-switching Storybooks on Dual-Language Learners’ Retention of New Vocabulary. Early Education and Development, 32(4), 516–533.
Restrepo, M. A., Morgan, G. P., & Thompson, M. S. (2013). The efficacy of a vocabulary intervention for dual-language learners with language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(2), 748–765.
Roberts, T. A. (2008). Home storybook reading in primary or second language with preschool children: Evidence of equal effectiveness for second-language vocabulary acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(2), 103–130.
Robinson Anthony, J. J., Blumenfeld, H. K., Potapova, I., & Pruitt-Lord, S. L. (2020). Language dominance predicts cognate effects and metalinguistic awareness in preschool bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1–20.
Roth, F. P., Speece, D. L., & Cooper, D. H. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of the connection between oral language and early reading. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 259–272.
Rowe, L. W. (2018). Say it in your language: Supporting translanguaging in multilingual classes. The Reading Teacher, 72(1), 31–38.
Rycroft-Malone, J., McCormack, B., Hutchinson, A. M., DeCorby, K., Bucknall, T. K., Kent, B., … & Wilson, V. (2012). Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research. Implementation Science, 7(1), 1–10.
Scheele, A. F., Leseman, P. P., & Mayo, A. Y. (2010). The home language environment of monolingual and bilingual children and their language proficiency. Applied Psycholinguistics, 31(1), 117–140.
Schelletter, C. (2002). The effect of form similarity on bilingual children’s lexical development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5(2), 93–107.
Schröter, P., & Schroeder, S. (2016). Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 141, 239–246.
Silverman, R. D., Proctor, C. P., Harring, J. R., Hartranft, A. M., Doyle, B., & Zelinke, S. B. (2015). Language skills and reading comprehension in English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2–5. Reading & Writing, 28(9), 1381–1405.
Singh, L. (2014). One world, two languages: Cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. Child Development, 85(2), 755–766.
Spätgens, T., & Schoonen, R. (2018). The semantic network, lexical access, and reading comprehension in monolingual and bilingual children: An individual differences study. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(1), 225–256.
Spätgens, T., & Schoonen, R. (2019). Individual differences in reading comprehension in monolingual and bilingual children: The influence of semantic priming during sentence reading. Learning and Individual Differences, 76, 101777.
Spencer, T. D., Moran, M., Thompson, M. S., Petersen, D. B., & Restrepo, M. A. (2020). Early efficacy of multitiered dual-language instruction: Promoting preschoolers’ Spanish and English oral language. AERA Open, 6(1), 1–16.
Spencer, T. D., Petersen, D. B., Restrepo, M. A., Thompson, M., & Gutierrez Arvizu, M. N. (2019). The effect of Spanish and English narrative intervention on the language skills of young dual language learners. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 38(4), 204–219.
Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew Effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360–407.
Styles, S. J., & Plunkett, K. (2009). How do infants build a semantic system? Language and Cognition, 1(1), 1–24.
Tannenbaum, K. R., Torgesen, J. K., & Wagner, R. K. (2006). Relationships between word knowledge and reading comprehension in third-grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(4), 381–398.
Thordardottir, E., Rothenberg, A., Rivard, M. E., & Naves, R. (2006). Bilingual assessment: Can overall proficiency be estimated from separate measurement of two languages? Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 4(1), 1–21.
Ticheloven, A., Schwenke-Lam, T., & Fürstenau, S. (2020). Multilingual teaching practices in primary classrooms in Germany: Language comparisons. In Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning (pp. 34–51). Routledge.
Tonzar, C., Lotto, L., & Job, R. (2009). L2 vocabulary acquisition in children: Effects of learning method and cognate status. Language Learning, 59(3), 623–646.
Unsworth, S., Chondrogianni, V., & Skarabela, B. (2018). Experiential measures can be used as a proxy for language dominance in bilingual language acquisition research. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1809.
Vagh, S. B., Pan, B. A., & Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2009). Measuring growth in bilingual and monolingual children’s English productive vocabulary development: The utility of combining parent and teacher report. Child Development, 80(5), 1545–1563.
Valente, D., Ferré, P., Soares, A., Rato, A., & Comesaña, M. (2018). Does phonological overlap of cognate words modulate cognate acquisition and processing in developing and skilled readers? Language Acquisition, 25(4), 438–453.
Van Hell, J. G. (2020). Lexical processing in child and adult classroom second language learners: Uniqueness and similarities, and implications for cognitive models. In Psychology of Learning and Motivation. Advances in Research and Theory (pp. 207–234). Academic Press Inc..
Verhoeven, L. T. (1994). Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic interdependence hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44(3), 381–415.
Von Holzen, K., Fennell, C. T., & Mani, N. (2019). The impact of cross-language phonological overlap on bilingual and monolingual toddlers’ word recognition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 22(3), 476–499.
Von Holzen, K., & Mani, N. (2012). Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113(4), 569–586.
White, J. L., & Horst, M. (2012). Cognate awareness-raising in late childhood: Teachable and useful. Language Awareness, 21(1–2), 181–196.
Williams, C. (1994). Arfarniad o ddulliau dysgu ac addysgu yng nghyd-destun addysg uwchradd ddwyieithog [An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education] [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Wales.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interests.
Current themes of research and most relevant publications
Evelyn Bosma is a postdoctoral researcher. She investigates the relationship between bilingualism and cognition, mainly among Frisian-Dutch bilingual children.
Blom, E., Bosma, E., & Heeringa, W. (2021). Regular and irregular inflection in different groups of bilingual children and the role of verbal short-term and verbal working memory. Languages, 6(1), 56. https://doi.org/10.3390/languages6010056
Bosma, E., & Pablos, L. (2020). Switching direction modulates the engagement of cognitive control in bilingual reading comprehension: an ERP study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 55, 100894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2020.100894
Bosma, E., & Nota, N. (2020). Cognate facilitation in Frisian–Dutch bilingual children’s sentence reading: An eye-tracking study. Journal of experimental child psychology, 189, 104699. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2019.104699
Arthur Bakker is an associate professor with an interest in multilingualism, boundary crossing, and embodied cognition in Mathematics and Science Education.
Abdu, R., van Helden, G., Alberto, R., & Bakker, A. (2021). Multimodal dialogue in small-group mathematics learning. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 29, 100491. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2021.100491
Bakker, A., Cai, J., & Zenger, L. (2021). Future themes of mathematics education research: an international survey before and during the pandemic. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 107(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-021-10049-w
Draijer, J., Bakker, A., Slot, E., & Akkerman, S. (2020). The Multidimensional Structure of Interest. Frontline Learning Research, 8(4), 18-36. https://doi.org/10.14786/flr.v8i4.577
Linda Zenger is a researcher with interest in multilingualism, STEM education, and issues concerning sustainability and equality.
Bakker, A., Cai, J., & Zenger, L. (2021). Future themes of mathematics education research: an international survey before and during the pandemic. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 107(1), 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-021-10049-w
Elma Blom is Professor of language development and multilingualism in family and educational context.
Blom, E., Soto-Corominas, A., Attar, Z. Daskalaki, E., & Paradis, J. (in press). Interdependence between L1 and L2: the case of Syrian children with refugee backgrounds in Canada and the Netherlands. Applied Psycholinguistics.
Francot, R., Blom, E., Broekhuizen, M., & Leseman, P. (2021). Profiles of bilingualism in early childhood: A person-centred Latent Profile Transition Approach. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 24(3), 569-582. https://doi.org/doi:10.1017/S1366728920000383
Ticheloven, A., Blom, E., Leseman, P., & McMonagle, S. (2019). Translanguaging challenges in multilingual classrooms: scholar, teacher and student perspectives. International Journal of Multilingualism, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2019.1686002
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Bosma, E., Bakker, A., Zenger, L. et al. Supporting the development of the bilingual lexicon through translanguaging: a realist review integrating psycholinguistics with educational sciences. Eur J Psychol Educ 38, 225–247 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-021-00586-6