Advertisement

European Journal of Psychology of Education

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 873–894 | Cite as

Assessing study abroad students’ intercultural sensitivity with narratives

  • Christian TarchiEmail author
  • Alessio Surian
  • Colette Daiute
Article
  • 236 Downloads

Abstract

This study analyzed study abroad students’ orientations to cultural differences as assessed with mixed methods, including traditional intercultural sensitivity measures and oral narratives of critical incidents in the foreign culture. Sixty students participated, 32 US study abroad students, and 28 Erasmus Mundus students, all studying in English-speaking programs in Italy. Data about students’ acculturation orientation were collected through a self-report questionnaire, and students were asked to narrate a cultural experience that “puzzled” them in a video log format. Statistical analyses were designed to integrate the intercultural orientation (acculturation strategy) and the video log narrative analyses (plot analysis and cultural relevance definitions). Results indicated that Erasmus Mundus students expressed more ethnorelative orientations than the US study abroad students. For example, Erasmus Mundus students emphasized the setting and the ending of their experiences more than the US students did. Erasmus Mundus students presented lower identification scores with their conationals than US study abroad students did. We operationalize those concepts with an analysis of narrative video logs, as tools for students, as well as for researchers and educators involved in study abroad programs.

Keywords

Study abroad Intercultural sensitivity Acculturation orientation Narratives Plot analysis 

Notes

References

  1. Akkermann, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2011). Learning at the boundary: an introduction. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(1), 1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2011.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, P. H., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R. J., & Hubbard, A. C. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: a pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 457–469.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179–196.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(86)90005-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, M. J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent. In J. S. Wurzel (Ed.), Toward multiculturalism: a reader in multicultural education (pp. 62–77). Newton: Intercultural resource corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Bennett, M. J. (2009). Defining, measuring, and facilitating intercultural learning: a conceptual introduction to the Intercultural Education double supplement. Intercultural Education, 20(sup1), S1–S13.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980903370763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry, J. W. (1974). Psychological aspects of cultural pluralism: unity and identity reconsidered. In R. Brislin (Ed.), Topics in culture learning (pp. 17–22). Honolulu: East-West Culture Learning Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1), 5–34.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1997.tb01087.x.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6), 697–712.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloom, M., & Miranda, A. (2015). Intercultural sensitivity through short-term study abroad. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(4), 567–580.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14708477.2015.1056795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brux, J. M., & Fry, B. (2010). Multicultural students in study abroad: their interest, their issues, and their constraints. Journal of Studies in International Education, 14(5), 508–527.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315309342486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Busse, V., & Krause, U.-M. (2015). Addressing cultural diversity: effects of a problem-based intercultural learning unit. Learning Environments Research, 18(3), 425–452.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10984-015-9193-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Busse, V., & Krause, U.-M. (2016). Instructional methods and languages in class: a comparison of two teaching approaches and two teaching languages in the field of intercultural learning. Learning and Instruction, 42, 83–94.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2016.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Celenk, O., & Van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2011). Assessment of acculturation: issues and overview of measures. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 8(1).  https://doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1105.
  14. Daiute, C. (2010). Human development and political violence. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Daiute, C. (2014). Narrative inquiry: a dynamic approach. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daiute, C. (2016). A relational theory of human development in the 21st century crisis of violence and displacement. Human Development, 59(2–3), 128–151.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000448230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deardoff, D. K. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of intercultural competence. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  18. Deardorff, D. K. (2015). Intercultural competence: mapping the future research agenda. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 3–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Demes, K. A., & Geeraert, N. (2014). Measures matter: scales for adaptation, cultural distance, and acculturation orientation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1), 91–109.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022113487590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engle, L., & Engle, J. (2004). Assessing language acquisition and intercultural sensitivity development in relation to study abroad program design. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 10, 219–236.Google Scholar
  21. Fitzgerald, M. H. (2001). Gaining knowledge of culture during professional education. In J. Higgs & A. Titchen (Eds.), Practice knowledge and expertise in the health professions (pp. 149–156). Melbourne: Butterworth Heinemann.Google Scholar
  22. Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 51(4), 327–358.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0061470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hammer, M. R. (2015). The Developmental paradigm for intercultural competence research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 48, 12–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2015.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: the intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00032-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jackson, J. (2008). Globalization, internationalization, and short-term stays abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(4), 349–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2008.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  27. Lebedko, M. (2013). Stereotype management in intercultural education through the analysis of critical incidents. In S. A. Houghton, Y. Furumura, M. Lebedko, & S. Li (Eds.), Critical cultural awareness. Managing stereotypes through intercultural (language) education (pp. 249–275). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. Mcleod, M., & Wainwright, P. (2009). Researching the study abroad experience. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(1), 66–71.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315308317219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nelson, K. (2007). Young minds in social worlds: experience, meaning, and memory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson, K. (1996). Language in cognitive development: the emergence of the mediated mind. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Olson, C. L., & Kroeger, K. R. (2001). Global competency and intercultural sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 5(2), 116–137.  https://doi.org/10.1177/102831530152003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Otten, M. (2003). Intercultural learning and diversity in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(1), 12–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315302250177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paige, R. M. (1993). Education for the intercultural experience. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  34. Pedersen, P. J. (2010). Assessing intercultural effectiveness outcomes in a year-long study abroad program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34(1), 70–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.09.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roy, A., Newman, A., Ellenberger, T., & Pyman, A. (2018). Outcomes of international student mobility programs: a systematic review and agenda for future research. Studies in Higher Education, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1458222.
  36. Smith, R. A., & Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699–713.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stephenson, S. (2002). Beyond the lapiths and the centaurs: cross-cultural “deepening” through study abroad. In W. Gruenzweig & N. Rinehart (Eds.), “Rockin” in Red Square: critical approaches to international education in the age of cyberculture (pp. 85–104). Munster: LIT.Google Scholar
  38. Teekens, H. (2003). The requirement to develop specific skills for teaching in an intercultural setting. Journal of Studies in International Education, 7(1), 108–119.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315302250192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vande Berg, M. (2007). Intervening in the learning of U.S. students abroad. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3–4), 392–399.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315307303924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vande Berg, M., Paige, M., & Hemming Lou, K. (2012). Student learning abroad: what our students are learning, what they’re not, and what we can do about it. Sterling: Stylus.Google Scholar
  41. Ward, C. (2001). The impact of international students on domestic students and host institutions. Wellington: Ministry of Education.Google Scholar
  42. Ward, C. (2008). Thinking outside the Berry boxes: new perspectives on identity, acculturation and intercultural relations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(2), 105–114.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2007.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ward, C., & Rana-Deuba, A. (1999). Acculturation and adaptation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(4), 422–442.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030004003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wight, A. R. (1995). The critical incident as a training tool. In S. M. Fowler & M. G. Mumford (Eds.), Intercultural sourcebook: cross-cultural training methods (pp. 127–140). Boston: Intercultural Press.Google Scholar
  45. Williams, T. R. (2005). Exploring the impact of study abroad on students’ intercultural communication skills: adaptability and sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 9(4), 356–371.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315305277681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wong, B., & Butler, D. L. (2012). Learning about learning disabilities (4th ed.). Waltham: Academic Press Inc..Google Scholar
  47. World Medical Association. (2013). Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. JAMA, 27(20), 2191–2194.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.281053.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisboa and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education, Languages, Intercultures, Literatures and PsychologyUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.FISPPAUniversità degli studi di PadovaPaduaItaly
  3. 3.PsychologyGraduate Center, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations