“How do you feel about math?”: relationships between competence and value appraisals, achievement emotions and academic achievement

Abstract

This study analyzes the relationships between cognitive appraisals, classroom and test emotions, and math achievement in a sample of 1219 Portuguese students from the 6th and 8th grades. Participants completed measures of perceived value, perceived competence, and seven math achievement emotions (boredom, hopelessness, anger, anxiety, enjoyment, pride, and relief) experienced in two different settings: classroom and tests. Math achievement was obtained from school records. Results showed significant associations between student competence and value appraisals, their emotional experiences in test and classroom situations, and their math achievement. However, when emotions were considered simultaneously in structural equation modeling, only anger in test situations and hopelessness were significant negative predictors of students’ math achievement. Hopelessness appears to play a particular role in the interplay between cognitive appraisals, emotions, and academic achievement as it is the only emotion that relates to math achievement both in test and classroom situations. Furthermore, findings also support the existence of differences in the relationships between cognitive appraisals and the achievement emotions students experience in these two settings.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    Mean regression coefficient (absolute value)

References

  1. Ahmed, W., Minnaert, A., Van Der Werf, G., & Kuyper, H. (2010). Perceived social support and early adolescents’ achievement: the mediational roles of motivational beliefs and emotions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-008-9367-7.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed, W., Van Der Werf, G., Kuyper, H., & Minnaert, A. (2013). Emotions, self-regulated learning, and achievement in mathematics: a growth curve analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0030160.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Arbuckle, J. (2012). Amos (version 21.0) [computer program]. Chicago: SPSS.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Artino, A. R., La Rochelle, J. S., & Durning, S. J. (2010). Second‐year medical students’ motivational beliefs, emotions, and achievement. Medical Education. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03712.x.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Au, R., Watkins, D. A., & Hattie, J. (2010). Academic risk factors and deficits of learned hopelessness: a longitudinal study of Hong Kong secondary school students. Educational Psychology. doi:10.1080/01443410903476400.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice. doi:10.1080/0969595980050102.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Burić, I., & Sorić, I. (2012). The role of test hope and hopelessness in self-regulated learning: relations between volitional strategies, cognitive appraisals and academic achievement. Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2012.03.011.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., Pekrun, R., Haynes, T. L., Perry, R. P., & Newall, N. E. (2009). A longitudinal analysis of achievement goals: from affective antecedents to emotional effects and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0016096.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., & Pekrun, R. (2011). Students’ emotions during homework in mathematics: testing a theoretical model of antecedents and achievement outcomes. Contemporary Educational Psychology. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.001.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Dündar, S., Güvendir, M. A., Kocabiyik, O. O., & Papatga, E. (2014). Which elementary school subjects are the most likeable, most important, and the easiest? Why?: a study of science and technology, mathematics, social studies, and Turkish. Educational Research and Reviews. doi:10.5897/ERR2014.1755.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. doi:10.1037/a0018053.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Erturan, S., & Jansen, B. (2015). An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables. European Journal of Psychology of Education. doi:10.1007/s10212-015-0248-7.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Feldman, D. B., & Kubota, M. (2015). Hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and academic achievement: distinguishing constructs and levels of specificity in predicting college grade-point average. Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2014.11.022.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Girls and mathematics—a “hopeless” issue? A control-value approach to gender differences in emotions towards mathematics. European Journal of Psychology of Education. doi:10.1007/BF03173468.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday resilience. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National Society for the Study of Education Yearbook. Engaging youth in schools: empirically-based models to guide future innovations (Vol. 113, pp. 101–123). Teachers’s College: Columbia University.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. C. (2006). The domain specificity of academic emotional experiences. The Journal of Experimental Education. doi:10.3200/JEXE.75.1.5-29.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., Hall, N. C., & Lüdtke, O. (2007). Between- and within-domain relations of students’ academic emotions. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.99.4.715.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Hall, N. C., & Pekrun, R. (2008). Antecedents of academic emotions: testing the internal/external frame of reference model for academic enjoyment. Contemporary Educational Psychology. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.12.002.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Goetz, T., Cronjaeger, H., Frenzel, A. C., Lüdtke, O., & Hall, N. C. (2010). Academic self-concept and emotion relations: domain specificity and age effects. Contemporary Educational Psychology. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2009.10.001.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Goetz, T., Nett, U. E., Martiny, S. E., Hall, N. C., Pekrun, R., Dettmers, S., & Trautwein, U. (2012). Students’ emotions during homework: Structures, self-concept antecedents, and achievement outcomes. Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.006.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Goetz, T., Bieg, M., Lüdtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Hall, N. C. (2013). Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics? Psychological Science. doi:10.1177/0956797613486989.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Huang, C. (2011). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review. doi:10.1007/s10648-011-9155-x.

    Google Scholar 

  24. IBM (2012). SPSS statistics for Windows, version 21.0. Armonk: IBM Corp.

  25. Keeley, J., Zayac, R., & Correia, C. (2008). Curvilinear relationships between statistics anxiety and performance among undergraduate students: evidence for optimal anxiety. Statistics Education Research Journal, 7(1), 4–15.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kline, R. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Kock, N., & Lynn, G. S. (2012). Lateral collinearity and misleading results in variance-based SEM: an illustration and recommendations. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 13(7), 546–580. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2152644.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Kyttälä, M., & Björn, P. M. (2010). Prior mathematics achievement, cognitive appraisals and anxiety as predictors of Finnish students’ later mathematics performance and career orientation. Educational Psychology. doi:10.1080/01443411003724491.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Lam, U. F., Chen, W. W., Zhang, J., & Liang, T. (2015). It feels good to learn where I belong: school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in adolescents. School Psychology International. doi:10.1177/0143034315589649.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Levi, U., Einav, M., Ziv, O., Raskind, I., & Margalit, M. (2014). Academic expectations and actual achievements: the roles of hope and effort. European Journal of Psychology of Education. doi:10.1007/s10212-013-0203-4.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Lichtenfeld, S., Pekrun, R., Stupnisky, R., Reiss, K., & Murayama, K. (2012). Measuring students’ emotions in the early years: the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES). Learning and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.009.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Lindberg, S. M., Hyde, J. S., Petersen, J. L., & Linn, M. C. (2010). New trends in gender and mathematics performance: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. doi:10.1037/a0021276.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Lipnevich, A. A., MacCann, C., Bertling, J. P., Naemi, B., & Roberts, R. D. (2012). Emotional reactions toward school situations relationships with academic outcomes. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. doi:10.1177/0734282912449445.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Luo, W., Lee, K., Ng, P. T., & Ong, J. W. (2014). Incremental beliefs of ability, achievement emotions and learning of Singapore students. Educational Psychology. doi:10.1080/01443410.2014.909008.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Ma, X., & Xu, J. (2004). The causal ordering of mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement: a longitudinal panel analysis. Journal of Adolescence. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.11.003.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Macher, D., Paechter, M., Papousek, I., Ruggeri, K., Freudenthaler, H. H., & Arendasy, M. (2013). Statistics anxiety, state anxiety during an examination, and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02081.x.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Malkovsky, E., Merrifield, C., Goldberg, Y., & Danckert, J. (2012). Exploring the relationship between boredom and sustained attention. Experimental Brain Research. doi:10.1007/s00221-012-3147-z.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Meece, J. L., Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (1990). Predictors of math anxiety and its influence on young adolescents’ course enrollment intentions and performance in mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.60.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Mega, C., Ronconi, L., & De Beni, R. (2014). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0033546.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Meyer, D., & Turner, J. (2006). Re-conceptualizing emotion and motivation to learn in classroom contexts. Educational Psychology Review. doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9032-1.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Monteiro, V., Mata, L. M., & Peixoto, F. (2015). Intrinsic motivation inventory: psychometric properties in the context of first language and mathematics learning. Psicologia Reflexão e Crítica. doi:10.1590/1678-7153.201528302.

    Google Scholar 

  42. OECD, (2014). PISA 2012 results: What students know and can do – Student performance in mathematics, reading and science (Vol. 1 Revised edition). doi: 10.1787/9789264201118-en

  43. Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pekrun, R. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology. doi:10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Pekrun, R. (2006). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educational Psychology Review. doi:10.1007/s10648-006-9029-9.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Pekrun, R. (2009). Global and local perspectives on human affect: implications of the control- value theory of achievement emotions. In M. Wosnitza, S. A. Karabenick, A. Efklides, & P. Nenniger (Eds.), Contemporary motivation research: from global to local perspectives (pp. 97–115). Toronto: Hogrefe.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Pekrun, R. (2013). Emotions, motivation, and self-regulation: common principles and future directions. In N. Hall & T. Goetz (Eds.), Emotion, motivation, and self-regulation: a handbook for teachers. Emerald Group Publishing Limited: Bingley.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: a program of quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Psychologist. doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Perry, R. P., Kramer, K., Hochstadt, M., & Molfenter, S. (2004). Beyond test anxiety: development and validation of the Test Emotions Questionnaire (TEQ). Anxiety, Stress and Coping. doi:10.1080/10615800412331303847.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: a theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.98.3.583.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2007). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: an integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 13–36). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0013383.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Daniels, L. M., Stupnisky, R. H., & Perry, R. P. (2010). Boredom in achievement settings: exploring control–value antecedents and performance outcomes of a neglected emotion. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0019243.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Frenzel, A. C., Barchfeld, P., & Perry, R. P. (2011). Measuring emotions in students’ learning and performance: the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). Contemporary Educational Psychology. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.10.002.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Pekrun, R., Hall, N., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2014). Boredom and academic achievement: testing a model of reciprocal causation. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1037/a0036006.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Pinxten, M., Marsh, H. W., De Fraine, B., Van Den Noortgate, W., & Van Damme, J. (2014). Enjoying mathematics or feeling competent in mathematics? Reciprocal effects on mathematicsachievement and perceived math effort expenditure. British Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1111/bjep.12028.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Raccanello, D., Brondino, M., & Bernardi, B. (2013). Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. doi:10.1111/sjop.12079.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Radišić, J., Videnović, M., & Baucal, A. (2015). Math anxiety—contributing school and individual level factors. European Journal of Psychology of Education. doi:10.1007/s10212-014-0224-7.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2006). A first course in structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students’ academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. doi:10.1037/a0026838.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Sorić, I., Penezić, Z., & Burić, I. (2013). Big Five personality traits, cognitive appraisals and emotion regulation strategies as predictors of achievement emotions. Psihologijske Teme, 22(2), 325–349.

    Google Scholar 

  61. StatSoft, I. (2013). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa: StatSoft. Retrieved from: http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Tapia, J. A., & Montero, I. (2004). Orientação motivacional e estratégias motivadoras na aprendizagem escolar. In C. Coll, A. Marchesi, & J. Palácios (Eds.), Desenvolvimento psicológico e educação 2. Psicologia da educação escolar (pp. 177-192). Porto Alegre: Artmed.

  63. Trautwein, U., Lüdtke, O., Kastens, C., & Köller, O. (2006). Effort on homework in grades 5 through 9: development, motivational antecedents, and the association with effort on classwork. Child Development. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00921.x.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Ugodulunwa, C., & Okolo, U. P. (2015). Effects of formative assessment on mathematics test anxiety and performance of senior secondary school students in Jos, Nigeria. Journal of Research and Method in Education. doi:10.9790/7388-05223847.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Villavicencio, F. T., & Bernardo, A. B. (2013). Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self‐regulation and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2012.02064.x.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Weiner, B. (2007). Examining emotional diversity in the classroom: an attribution theorist considers the moral emotions. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 75–88). Amsterdam: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Winberg, T. M., Hellgren, J. M., & Palm, T. (2014). Stimulating positive emotional experiences in mathematics learning: influence of situational and personal factors. European Journal of Psychology of Education. doi:10.1007/s10212-014-0220-y.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Wu, S. S., Willcutt, E. G., Escovar, E., & Menon, V. (2014). Mathematics achievement and anxiety and their relation to internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Journal of Learning Disabilities. doi:10.1177/0022219412473154.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Francisco Peixoto.

Additional information

Francisco Peixoto. CIE—ISPA; ISPA—Instituto Universitário, R. Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149–041 Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail: fpeixoto@ispa.pt

Current themes of research:

Affective components in learning processes, namely motivation and emotions. Self-concept and self-esteem development during adolescence and its relations with the school context. Relational dynamics (family and peers) and their relationships with academic adjustment. Teacher’s identity, motivation, and resilience.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:

Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pekrun, R. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire: Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 472–481. doi:10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757

Peixoto, F., & Almeida, L. S. (2011). A organização do autoconceito: Análise da estrutura hierárquica em adolescentes [Self-concept organization: Analysis of hierarchical structure in adolescents]. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24(3), 533–541.

Peixoto, F. (2011). “Is it beneficial to stress grades to my child?” – Relationships between parental attitudes towards academic achievement, motivation, academic self-concept and academic achievement in adolescents. International Journal About Parents in Education, 5(2), 98–109.

Peixoto, F., & Almeida, L. S. (2010). Self-concept, self-esteem and academic achievement: Strategies for maintaining self-esteem in students experiencing academic failure. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25(2), 157–175.

Alves-Martins, M., Peixoto, F., Gouveia-Pereira, M., Amaral, V., & Pedro, I. (2002). Self-esteem and academic achievement among adolescents. Educational Psychology, 22(1), 51–62. .

Cristina Sanches. CIE – ISPA; ISPA – Instituto Universitário, R. Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149–041 Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail: csanches@ispa.pt

Current themes of research:

Adolescents’ relationships with authorities, school, and involvement in deviant behaviour. Particularly, adolescents’ deviant reactions to teachers’ procedural and interpersonal (in)justice.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:

Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pekrun, R. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire: Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 472–481. doi:10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757

Sanches, C., Gouveia-Pereira, M., Marôco, J., Gomes, H., & Roncon, F. (in press). Deviant Behavior Variety Scale: Development and Validation with a sample of Portuguese adolescents”. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 29(1).

Sanches, C., Gouveia‐Pereira, M., & Carugati, F. (2012). Justice judgements, school failure, and adolescent deviant behaviour. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 606–621. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.02048.x

Sanches, C., & Gouveia-Pereira, M. (2010). Julgamentos de justiça em contexto escolar e comportamentos desviantes na adolescência [Justice judgements within the school setting and adolescent deviant behaviour]. Análise Psicológica, 28(1), 71–84.

Lourdes Mata. CIE—ISPA; ISPA—Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail lmata@ispa.pt

Current themes of research:

The identification and characterization of contextual (e.g., parental involvement, classroom climate) and personal factors (e.g., beliefs, emotions, motivation) which interfere on development and learning.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:

Mata, L., Peixoto, F., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pereira, M. (2015). Emoções em contexto académico: Relações com clima de sala de aula, autoconceito e resultados escolares. Análise Psicológica, 33, 407–424. doi:10.14417/ap.1050

Monteiro, V., Mata, L. & Peixoto, F. (2015) Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: Psychometric Properties in the Context of First language and Mathematics Learning. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 28(3), 434–443. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201528302

Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pekrun, R. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire: Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 472–481. doi:10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757

Mata, L., Peixoto, F. & Monteiro, V. (2012). Attitudes towards mathematics: Effects of individual, motivational and social support factors. Child Development Research, vol. 2012, 1–10, doi:10.1155/2012/876028

Mata, L. (2011). Motivation for reading and writing in preschool children. Reading Psychology, 32(3), 272–299. doi:10.1080/02702711.2010.545268.

Vera Monteiro. CIE—ISPA; ISPA—Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: veram@ispa.pt

Current themes of research:

Motivation, affects and contexts of learning.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education:

Monteiro, V., Mata, L. & Peixoto, F. (2015) Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: Psychometric properties in the context of first language and mathematics learning. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 28(3), 434–443. doi: 10.1590/1678-7153.201528302

Peixoto, F., Mata, L., Monteiro, V., Sanches, C., & Pekrun, R. (2015). The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire: Validation for pre-adolescent students. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 472–481. doi:10.1080/17405629.2015.1040757

Monteiro, V. (2013). Promoting reading motivation by reading together. Reading Psychology, 34(4), 301–335. doi: 10.1080/02702711.2011.635333

Monteiro, V. (2012). Promoção do autoconceito e auto estima através de um programa de leitura a par. Psicologia, Reflexão e Crítica 25(1), 147–155.

Mata, L., Peixoto, F. & Monteiro, V. (2012). Attitudes towards mathematics: Effects of individual, motivational and social support factors. Child Development Research, vol. 2012, 1–10, doi:10.1155/2012/876028

This work is part of a broader research project (PTDC/CPE-CED/121358/2010) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Peixoto, F., Sanches, C., Mata, L. et al. “How do you feel about math?”: relationships between competence and value appraisals, achievement emotions and academic achievement. Eur J Psychol Educ 32, 385–405 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-016-0299-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Achievement emotions
  • Cognitive appraisals
  • Competence perception
  • Value
  • Math
  • Achievement