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Grade level, study time, and grade retention and their effects on motivation, self-regulated learning strategies, and mathematics achievement: a structural equation model

Abstract

The present study complements previous research findings with new data to improve our understanding of the relationship between motivational variables and academic performance in math mediated by self-regulated learning (SRL). A structural equation model with predictor (i.e., grade retention, grade level, and study time), process (i.e., perceived usefulness of SRL strategies, self-efficacy for the use of SRL strategies, and reported use of SRL), and product variables (i.e., academic achievement in mathematics) is proposed. The model was analyzed in two samples of data (calibration and validation samples). The first sample served to fit and respecify the model, and the second one was used to analyze the consistency of the findings of the first sample. A sample of 756 middle school Portuguese students participated in the current study. The results indicate that SRL is positively and significantly related to academic achievement and that the latter is, in turn, powerfully determined by perceived usefulness and self-efficacy, although students’ reported use of SRL strategies decreases from 7th to 9th grades. Self-efficacy and perceived usefulness of SRL strategies were also found to decrease as grade retention increased. These results are discussed with regard to the relevance of self-efficacy and perceived usefulness of SRL strategies in increasing academic achievement.

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Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge the insightful suggestions provided by two anonymous reviewers on the previous version of this manuscript.

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Authors

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Correspondence to Pedro Rosário.

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Pedro Rosário. Psychology Department of University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal. E-mail: prosario@iep.uminho.pt; Web site: www.psi.uminho.pt; Web site: www.guia-psiedu.com

Current themes of research:

Self-regulated learning. Programs to enhance self-regulation. Study skills and approaches to learning. Homework.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education (max: 5):

1. Rosário, P., Lourenço, A., Paiva, O., Valle, A., & Tuero-Herrero, E. (2012). Predicción del rendimiento en matemáticas: efecto de variables personales, socioeducativas y del contexto escolar. Psicothema, 24(2), 289–295.

2. Rosário, P., Lourenço, A., Paiva, O., Núnez, J., González-Pienda, J. & Valle, A. (2012). Autoeficacia y utilidad percibida como condiciones necesarias para un aprendizaje académico autorregulado. Anales de Psicologia, 28 (1), 37–44.

3. Rosário, P. Mourão, R., Trigo, L., Suárez, N., Fernández, E. & Tuero-Herrero, E. (2011). Uso de diarios de tareas para casa en el inglés como lengua extranjera: evaluación de pros y contras en el aprendizaje autorregulado y rendimiento. Psicothema, 23(4), 881–887.

4. Rosário, P., Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Valle, A., Trigo, L., & Guimarães, C. (2010). Enhancing self-regulation and approaches in first-year college students: A narrative-based program assessed in the Iberian Peninsula. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25, 411–428.

5. Rosário, P., Costa, M., Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J., Solano, P., & Valle, A. (2009). Academic Procrastination: Associations with personal, school, and family variables. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 118–127.

José Carlos Núñez. Psychology Department of University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijoo s/n, 33003, Oviedo, España. E-mail: jcarlos@telecable.es; Web site: www.uniovi.es/zope/departamentos/Psicologia

Current themes of research:

Self-regulated learning. Motivation in higher education. Approaches to learning. Homework and school achievement. Assessment.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education (max: 5):

Núnez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Rodríguez, C., Valle, A., González-Cabanach, R. & Rosário, P. (2011). Multiple Goals Perspective in Adolescent Students with Learning Difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34, 273–286.

Núnez, J. Cerezo, R., González-Pienda, J., Rosário, P., Valle, A., Fernández, E. & Suárez, N. (2011). Implementation of training programs in self-regulated learning strategies in Moodle format: Results of a experience in higher education. Psicothema, 23(2), 274–281.

Rosário, P., Núñez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Valle, A., Trigo, L., & Guimarães, C. (2010). Enhancing self-regulation and approaches in first-year college students: A narrative-based program assessed in the Iberian Peninsula. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 25, 411–428.

Valle, A., Cabanach, R.G., Rodríguez, S., Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J.A., Solano, P., & Rosário, P. (2007). A motivational perspective on the self-regulated learning in higher education. In P. B. Richards (Ed.), Global issues in higher education (pp. 99–125). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Cabanach, R., González-Pienda, J., Rodríguez, S., Rosário, P., Cerezo, R., & Muñoz-Cadavid, M. (2008). Self-Regulated Profiles and Academic Achievement. Psicothema, 20(4), 724–731.

Julio González-Pienda. Psychology Department of University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijoo s/n, 33003, Oviedo, España. E-mail: julioag@uniovi.es; Web site: www.uniovi.es/zope/departamentos/Psicologia

Current themes of research:

Self-regulated learning. Family and school relations. Mathematics education. Motivation and school achievement.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education (max: 5):

Valle, A., Rodríguez, S., J. C. Núñez, J.C., Cabanach, R., González-Pienda, J. A. & Rosário, R. (2010). Motivación y Aprendizaje Autorregulado. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 44, 1, 86–97.

Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J., Bernardo, A., Alvarez, L., Rosário, P., Valle, A., Cabanach, R., Rodríguez, S., & Castejón, J. L. (2008). Intellectual Abilities, Thinking Styles, and Academic Achievement. In A. Valle, J.C. Núñez, R.G. Cabanach, J.A. González-Pienda, & S. Rodríguez (Eds.), Handbook of instructional resources and their applications in the classroom (pp. 45–66). NY: Nova Science.

Rosário,P., Costa, M., Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J., Solano, P., & Valle, A. (2009). Academic Procrastination: Associations with personal, school, and family variables. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 118–127. (ISI Impact Factor, 0.558)

Valle, A., Cabanach, R.G., Rodríguez, S., Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J.A., Solano, P., & Rosário, P. (2007). A motivational perspective on the self-regulated learning in higher education. In P. B. Richards (Ed.), Global issues in higher education (pp. 99–125). New York: Nova Science Publishers

Núñez, J. C., Solano, P., González-Pienda, J., & Rosário, P. (2006). El aprendizaje autorregulado como medio y meta de la educación. Papeles del Psicólogo, 2 (3), 139–146.

Antonio Valle. Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of A Coruña, Campus de Elviña, 15071, A Coruña, España. E-mail: vallar@udc.es; Web site: http://www.udc.es/dep/psee

Current themes of research:

Goals. Self-regulated learning. Higher education. School achievement.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education (max: 5):

Valle, A., Rodríguez, S., J. C. Núñez, J.C., Cabanach, R., González-Pienda, J. A. & Rosário, R. (2010). Motivación y Aprendizaje Autorregulado. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 44, 1, 86–97.

Valle, A., Núñez, J.C., Cabanach, R., González-Pienda, J., Rodríguez, S., & Rosário, P. (2009). Academic Goals and Learning Quality in Higher Education Students. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 96–105.

Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Cabanach, R., Rodríguez, S., González-Pienda, J., & Rosário, P. (2009) Perfiles Motivacionales en Estudiantes de Secundaria: Análisis Diferencial en Estrategias Cognitivas, Estrategias de Autorregulación y Rendimiento Académico. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 26 (1), 113–124.

Valle, A., Cabanach, R.G., Núñez, J.C., González-Pienda, J.A., Rodríguez, S., & Piñeiro, I. (2003). Multiple goals, motivation and academic learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 71–87.

Núnez, J. C., González-Pienda, J., Rodríguez, C., Valle, A., González-Cabanach, R. & Rosário, P. (2011). Multiple Goals Perspective in Adolescent Students with Learning Difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 34, 273–286.

Abílio Lourenço. Psychology Department of Psychology. E-mail: privadoxy@gmail.com; Web site: www.guia-psiedu.com

Current themes of research:

Self-regulated learning. Approaches to learning. Higher education.

Most relevant publications in the field of Psychology of Education (max: 5):

Rosário, P., González-Pienda, J. A., Pinto, R., Ferreira, P., Lourenço, A. & Paiva, O. (2010). Efficacy of the program “Testas’s (mis)adventures” to promote the deep approach to learning. Psicothema, 22 (4), 828–834.

Rosário, P., Lourenço, A., Paiva, O., Núnez, J., González-Pienda, J. & Valle, A. (2012). Autoeficacia y utilidad percibida como condiciones necesarias para un aprendizaje académico autorregulado. Anales de Psicologia, 28 (1), 37–44.

Rosário, P., Lourenço, A., Paiva, O.,Valle, A., & Tuero-Herrero, E. (2012). Predicción del rendimiento en matemáticas: efecto de variables personales, socioeducativas y del contexto escolar. Psicothema, 24(2), 289–295.

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Rosário, P., Núñez, J.C., Valle, A. et al. Grade level, study time, and grade retention and their effects on motivation, self-regulated learning strategies, and mathematics achievement: a structural equation model. Eur J Psychol Educ 28, 1311–1331 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0167-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-012-0167-9

Keywords

  • Self-regulated learning
  • Structural equation model
  • Mathematics
  • Middle school