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acta ethologica

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 163–172 | Cite as

Predation selects for low resting metabolic rate and consistent individual differences in anti-predator behavior in a beetle

  • Indrikis KramsEmail author
  • Inese Kivleniece
  • Aare Kuusik
  • Tatjana Krama
  • Todd M. Freeberg
  • Raivo Mänd
  • Jolanta Vrublevska
  • Markus J. Rantala
  • Marika Mänd
Original Paper

Abstract

Significant between-individual variation in resting metabolic rate (RMR) of animals is a widespread phenomenon that may have important implications for our understanding of variation in behavior and animal personality. By using wild caught mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, we examined the relationships among survival rate under predator tests, individual response latency time to become immobile under the risk of predation, duration of immobility time, and RMR. Individuals with higher levels of RMR were bold, and bold individuals were found to be more exposed to the risk of bird predation. We found that RMR was positively correlated with the latency of immobility response and negatively correlated with the total duration of immobility. The correlation between behavioral responses suggests a behavioral syndrome in the anti-predator behavior of T. molitor. The results indicate that energy metabolism may be part of a syndrome that involves behavior and life history traits in animals.

Keywords

Personality Behavioral syndrome Predation Tenebrio molitor Natural selection 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the Academy of Finland to M.J.R. and I.K., by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Science to R.M. (target-financing project number 0180004s09) and to M.M. and A.K. (target-financing project number SF0170057s09), by the Estonian Science Foundation Grant No. 7391 to M.M. and A.K., and by the European Social Fund within the project “Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Daugavpils University” (agreement number 2009/0140/1DP/1.1.2.1.2./09/IPIA/ VIAA/015) to I.K. and J.V. T.M.F. acknowledges the support of a Fulbright award during Spring 2012, which helped make his work on this manuscript possible.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ISPA 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Indrikis Krams
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Inese Kivleniece
    • 1
  • Aare Kuusik
    • 2
  • Tatjana Krama
    • 1
  • Todd M. Freeberg
    • 3
  • Raivo Mänd
    • 4
  • Jolanta Vrublevska
    • 1
  • Markus J. Rantala
    • 5
  • Marika Mänd
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Systematic BiologyUniversity of DaugavpilsDaugavpilsLatvia
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesEstonian University of Life ScienceTartuEstonia
  3. 3.Department of Psychology and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary BiologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  5. 5.Section of Ecology, Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

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