Skip to main content

Influences of time perspectives and perceived values on continuance intention to engage in social media amongst older adults for healthcare-related purposes


Although communicating healthcare information via social media is becoming more common, less is known about older adults who suffer from digital inequalities regarding how they perceive the values from engaging in social media for healthcare-related purposes. Time perspective theory suggests that older adults’ perceptions of time influence their value assessments and actions. The paper investigates whether the effects of time perspective (present- and future-time) and its interaction with perceived values (hedonic, emotional, informational and social) explain older adults’ continuance intention to engage in social media for healthcare-related purposes. About 400 responses from older adults (above 60 years) were collected and analyzed using the structural equation modelling procedure. Different time perspectives result in biases in older adults’ perception of values, which discourages their social media engagement and leads to negative consequences for actively promoting online communication, including negative social value and negative social engagement attitude. Contrary to earlier findings, this study indicates that the present-time perspective has no effect on hedonic and informational values, whereas the future-time perspective has a negative influence on hedonic and social values. Further, hedonic and emotional values decrease the likelihood of continuance interaction with peers. The time perspectives affect different perceived values, which in turn affects the continuance intention to engage in social media for healthcare-related purposes. The findings demonstrated that time perspective theory operates in the opposite direction between the present and future time. The results reinforce the importance of enjoyment and emotional values and the irrelevance of informative and social values in examining older adults’ social media behaviors.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Availability of data and material

The authors agree that, subject to requirements or limitations imposed by Ministry of Higher Education and Multimedia University’s laws and regulations, any materials and data that are reasonably requested by others are available from a publicly accessible collection or will be made available in a timely fashion and in limited quantities to members of the scientific community for non-commercial purposes.


  1. 1.

    Perrin, A., Anderson, M.: Share of U.S. Adults using social media, including Facebook, is mostly unchanged since 2018. Pew Research Centre (2019). Accessed 30 Nov 2020

  2. 2.

    Arora, T., Agarwal, B.: Empirical study on perceived value and attitude of millennials towards social media advertising: a structural equation modelling approach. Vision 23(1): 56–69 (2018).

  3. 3.

    Azimi, I., Rahmani, A.M., Liljeberg, P., Tenhunen, H.: Internet of things for remote elderly monitoring: a study from user-centred perspective. J. Amb. Intell. Human. Comput. 8(2): 273–289 (2017).

  4. 4.

    Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Alex Linley, P., Ivanchenko, G.V.: A question of balance: time perspective and wellbeing in British and Russian samples. J. Posit. Psychol. 5(1), 24–40 (2010).

  5. 5.

    Bruhn, M., Schoenmueller, V., Schäfer, D.B.: Are social media replacing traditional media in terms of brand equity creation? Manage. Res. Rev. 35(9):770–790 (2012).

  6. 6.

    Chang, P.F., Choi, Y.H., Bazarova, N.N., Löckenhoff, C.E.: Age differences in online social networking: extending socioemotional selectivity theory to social network sites. J. Broadcast. Electron. Media 59(2): 221–239 (2015).

  7. 7.

    Chang, S.J., Van Witteloostuijn, A., Eden, L.: From the editors: common method variance in international business research. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 41:178–184 (2010).

  8. 8.

    Chopik, W.J.: The benefits of social technology use among older adults are mediated by reduced loneliness. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Social Netw. 19(9): 551–556 (2016).

  9. 9.

    Christofides E, Muise A, Desmarais S.: Information disclosure and control on Facebook: Are they two sides of the same coin or two different processes? Cyberpsychology & Behaviour. 12(3): 341–345 (2009).

  10. 10.

    Cimperman, M., Brenčič, M.M., Trkman, P.: Analysing older users’ home telehealth services acceptance behavior—applying an extended UTAUT model. Int. J. Med. Inform. 90: 22–31 (2016).

  11. 11.

    Constantinou, V., Ioannou, A., Klironomos, I., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: Technology support for the inclusion of deaf students in mainstream schools: a summary of research from 2007 to 2017. Univ. Access Inform. Soc. 19(1):195–200 (2020).

  12. 12.

    Crotty, B.H., Walker, J., Dierks, M., Lipsitz, L., O’Brien, J., Fischer, S., Slack, W.V., Safran, C.: Information sharing preferences of older patients and their families. JAMA Int. Med, 175(9), 1492–1497 (2015).

  13. 13.

    Desmyter, F., De Raedt, R.: The relationship between time perspective and subjective wellbeing of older adults. Psychologica Belgica. 52(1):19–38 (2012).

  14. 14.

    Dessart, L., Veloutsou, C., Morgan-Thomas, A.: Consumer engagement in online brand communities: a social media perspective. J. Prod. Brand Manage. 24(1): 28–42 (2015).

  15. 15.

    Dwivedi, A., Johnson, L.W, Wilkie, D.C., De Araujo-Gil, L.: Consumer emotional brand attachment with social media brands and social media brand equity. Eur. J. Market. 53(6):1176–1204 (2019).

  16. 16.

    Fang, J., Wen, C., George, B., Prybutok, V.R.: Consumer heterogeneity, perceived value, and repurchase decision-making in online shopping: the role of gender, age, and shopping motives. J. Electron. Comm. Res. 17(2): 116–131 (2016).

  17. 17.

    Gan, C., Wang, W.: The influence of perceived value on purchase intention in social commerce context. Intern. Res. 27(4):772–785 (2017).

  18. 18.

    Gruhn, D., Sharifian, N., Chu, Q.: The limits of a limited future time perspective in explaining age differences in emotional functioning. Psychol. Aging. 31(6):583–593 (2016).

  19. 19.

    Gruzd, A., Staves, K., Wilk, A.: Connected scholars: examining the role of social media in research practices of faculty using the UTAUT model. Comput. Human Behav. 28(6):2340–2350 (2012).

  20. 20.

    Hajli, N., Lin, X.: Exploring the security of information sharing on social networking sites: the role of perceived control of information. J. Bus. Ethics. 133(1): 111–123 (2016).

  21. 21.

    Han, M., Vasquez, A.Z.: Examination of cyber aggression by adult consumers: Ethical framework and drivers. J. Inform. Commun. Ethics Soc. 18(2):305–319 (2019).

  22. 22.

    Hargittai, E., Piper, A.M., Morris, M.R.: From internet access to internet skills: digital inequality among older adults. Univ. Access Inform. Soc. 18(4): 881–890 (2019). 10.1007/s10209-018-0617-5

  23. 23.

    Herche, J.: measuring social values: a multi-item adaptation to the list of values (MILOV). Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Hicks, J.A., Trent, J., Davis, W.E., King, L.A.: Positive affect, meaning in life, and future time perspective: an application of socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychol. Aging 27(1): 181–189 (2012).

  25. 25.

    Holbrook, M.B.: Consumption experience, customer value, and subjective personal introspection: an illustrative photographic essay. J. Bus. Res. 59(6): 714–725 (2006).

  26. 26.

    Holzinger, A., Searle, G., Wernbacher, M.: The effect of previous exposure to technology (PET) on acceptance and its importance in usability engineering. Springer Univ. Access Inform. Soc. Int. J. 10(3), 245–260 (2011).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Holzinger, A., Schaupp, K., Eder-Halbedl, W.: An investigation on acceptance of ubiquitous devices for the elderly in an geriatric hospital environment: using the example of person tracking. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 5105, pp. 22–29. Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin (2008).

  28. 28.

    Hudson, S., Roth, M.S., Madden, T.J., Hudson, R.: The effects of social media on emotions, brand relationship quality, and word of mouth: an empirical study of music festival attendees. Tourism Manage. 47:68–76 (2015).

  29. 29.

    Jochemczyk, Ł., Pietrzak, J., Buczkowski, R., Stolarski, M., Markiewicz, Ł.: You only live once: present-hedonistic time perspective predicts risk propensity. Personal. Indiv. Differ. 115:148–153 (2017).

  30. 30.

    Jones, R.B., Ashurst, E.J., Atkey, J., Duffy, B.: Older people going online: its value and before-after evaluation of volunteer support. J. Med. Intern. Res. 17(5): e122 (2015).

  31. 31.

    Kostal, J., Klicperova-Baker, M., Lukavska, K., Lukavsky, J.: Short version of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory (ZTPI–short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time Soc. 25(2): 169–192 (2016). 10.1177/0961463X15577254

  32. 32.

    Kosmas, P., Galanakis, G., Constantinou, V., Drossis, G., Christofi, M., Klironomos, I., Zaphiris, P., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: Enhancing accessibility in cultural heritage environments: considerations for social computing. Univ. Access Inform. Soc. 19(2), 471–482 (2020). 10.1007/s10209-019-00651-4

  33. 33.

    Lai, K.P., Chong, S.C., Ismail, H.B., Tong, D.Y.K.: Do salient e-servicescape attributes predict online brand image? Int. J. Intern. Market. Advert. 9(3),209–232 (2015).

  34. 34.

    Lai, K.P., Chong, S.C.: The influence of servicescape and service credibility on older adults’ intention to recover: a study of rehabilitation services in Malaysia. J. Health Organ. Manag. 34(2), 101–122 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Laureiro-Martinez, D., Trujillo, C.A., Unda, J.: Time perspective and age: a review of age associated differences. Front. Psychol. 8, Article 101 (2017).

  36. 36.

    Lee. C., Coughlin, J.F.: Perspective: older adults’ adoption of technology: an integrated approach to identifying determinants and barriers. J. Prod. Innov. Manage. 32(5), 747–759 (2015).

  37. 37.

    Lee, M.R., Yen, D.C., Hsiao, C.Y.: Understanding the perceived community value of Facebook users. Comput. Human Behav. 35(5), 350–358 (2014).

  38. 38.

    Lee, Y.K., Kim, S.Y., Chung, N., Ahn, K., Lee, J.W.: When social media met commerce: a model of perceived customer value in group-buying. J. Serv. Market. 30(4), 398–410 (2016).

  39. 39.

    Leist, A.K.: Social media use of older adults: a mini-review. Gerontology 59(4), 378–384 (2013).

  40. 40.

    Lewin, K.: Field Theory in Social Science. Harper and Row, New York, NY (1951)

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Li, T., Zhang, Y.: Social network types and the health of older adults: exploring reciprocal associations. Social Sci. Med. 130, 59–68 (2015).

  42. 42.

    Lin, C.: Assessing the mediation role of online social capital between social support and instant messaging usage. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 10(1), 105–114 (2011).

  43. 43.

    Lin, K.Y., Lu, H.P.: Why people use social networking sites: an empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory. Comput. Human Behav. 27(3), 1152–1161 (2011).

  44. 44.

    Liu, X., Peng, H., Cai, X.: Future time perspective drives younger and older adults to continue investing in failing activities. Int. J. Psychol. 55(6), 964–972 (2020).

  45. 45.

    Lu, J., Hung, K., Wang, L., Schuett, M.A., Hu, L.: Do perceptions of time affect outbound-travel motivations and intention? An investigation among Chinese seniors. Tourism Manage. 53, 1–12 (2016).

  46. 46.

    Lukavska, K.: The immediate and long-term effects of time perspective on Internet gaming disorder. J. Behav. Addict. 7(1), 44–51 (2018).

  47. 47.

    Luyckx, K., Lens, W., Smits, I., Goossens, L.: Time perspective and identity formation: Short-term longitudinal dynamics in college students. Int. J. Behav. Dev, 34(3), 238–247 (2010). 10.1177/0165025409350957

  48. 48.

    MCMC.: Internet Users Survey 2018. skmmgovmy/media/General/pdf/Internet-Users-Survey-2018.pdf. Accessed 17 June 2019.

  49. 49.

    Morris, A., Goodman, J., Brading, H.: Internet use and non-use: views of older users. Univ. Access Inform. Soc. 6(1), 43–57 (2007).

  50. 50.

    Pan, S., Jordan-Marsh, M.: Internet use intention and adoption among Chinese older adults: from the expanded technology acceptance model perspective. Comput. Human Behav. 26(5), 1111–111 (2010).

  51. 51.

    Phan, H.P., Ngu, B.H., McQueen, K.: Future time perspective and the achievement of optimal best: reflections, conceptualisations, and future directions for development. Front. Psychol. 11, 1037 (2020).

  52. 52.

    Przepiorka, A., Blachnio, A.: Time perspective in Internet and Facebook addiction. Comput. Human Behav. 60(7), 13–18 (2016).

  53. 53.

    Psychoula, I., Singh, D., Chen, L., Chen, F., Holzinger, A., Ning, H.: Users' privacy concerns in IoT based applications. In: 2018 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced & Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing & Communications, Cloud & Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI), pp. 1887–1894. IEEE (2018).

  54. 54.

    Rokeach, M.: The Nature of Human Values. Free Press, New York, NY (1973)

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Settanni, M., Marengo, D., Fabris, M.A., Longobardi, C.: The interplay between ADHD symptoms and time perspective in addictive social media use: a study on adolescent Facebook users. Children Youth Serv. Rev. 89, 165–170 (2018).

  56. 56.

    Shores, K., Scott, D.: The relationship of individual time perspective and recreation experience preferences. J. Leisure Res. 39(1), 28–59 (2007).

  57. 57.

    Sinclair, T.J., Grieve, R.: Facebook as a source of social connectedness in older adults. Comput. Human Behav. 66, 363–369 (2017).

  58. 58.

    Sourbati, M.: It could be useful, but not for me at the moment: older people, internet access and e-public service provision. New Media Soc. 11(7), 1083–1100 (2009).

  59. 59.

    Stahl, S.T., Patrick, J.H.: Adults’ future time perspective predicts engagement in physical activity. J. Gerontol. Ser. B Psychol. Sci. Social Sci. 67(4), 413–416 (2011).

  60. 60.

    Fang, X., Fidopiastis, C., Fragomeni, G., Fu, L., Guo, Y., Harris, D., Ioannou, A., Jeong, K., Konomi, S., Kromker, H., Kurosu, M., Lewis, J., Marcus, A., Meiselwitz, G., Moallem, A., Mori, H., Nah, F.F., Ntoa, S., Rau, P., Schmorrow, D., Siau, K., Streitz, N., Wang, W., Yamamoto, S., Zaphiris, P., Zhou, J.: Seven HCI grand challenges. Int. J. Human Comput. Interac. 35(14), 1229–1269 (2019).

  61. 61.

    Steptoe, A., Deaton, A., Stone, A.A.: Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing. Lancet. 385(9968), 640–648 (2015).

  62. 62.

    Sum, S., Mathews, R.M., Hughes, I., Campbell, A.: Internet use and loneliness in older adults. Cyberpsychol. Behav. 11(2):208–211 (2008).

  63. 63.

    Wang, C., Teo, T.S., Liu, L.: Perceived value and continuance intention in mobile government service in China. Telem. Inform. 48(2020), 101348 (2020).

  64. 64.

    Wills, T.A., Sandy, J.M., Yaeger, A.M.: Time perspective and early-onset substance use: a model based on stress–coping theory. Psychol. Addic. Behav. 15(2), 118–125 (2001).

  65. 65.

    Wilson, K., Fornasier, S., White, K.M.: Psychological predictors of young adults’ use of social networking sites. Cyberpsychol. Behav. Social Netw. 13(2), 173–177 (2010).

  66. 66.

    Wu, J.J., Lien, C.H., Mohiuddin, M., Chien, S.H., Yang, X.J.: The effects of smartphone users’ core self-evaluations and stickiness on intentions to download free social media apps. J. Decis. Syst. 25(3), 263–272 (2016).

  67. 67.

    Yu, H.S., Zhang, J.J., Kim, D.H., Chen, K.K., Henderson, C., Min, S.D., Huang, H.: Service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioural intention among fitness centre members aged 60 years and over. Social Behav. Personal. Int. J. 42(5), 757–767 (2014).

  68. 68.

    Zhang, C.B., Li, Y.N., Wu, B., Li, D.J.: How WeChat can retain users: roles of network externalities, social interaction ties, and perceived values in building continuance intention. Comput. Human Behav. 69, 284–293 (2017).

  69. 69.

    Zhang, H., Lu, Y., Gupta, S., Zhao, L.: What motivates customers to participate in social commerce? The impact of technological environments and virtual customer experiences. Inform. Manage. 51(8), 1017–1030 (2014).

  70. 70.

    Zhang, J.W., Howell, R.T., Bowerman, T.: Validating a brief measure of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Time Soc. 22(3), 391–409 (2013).

  71. 71.

    Zhao, L., Lu, Y.: Enhancing perceived interactivity through network externalities: an empirical study on micro-blogging service satisfaction and continuance intention. Decision Support Syst. 53(4), 825–834 (2012).

  72. 72.

    Zimbardo, P., Boyd, J.: The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time that Will Change your Life. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Zimbardo, P.G., Boyd, J.N.: Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric. In: Stolarski, M., et al. (eds.) Time perspective theory; review, research and application essays in honour of Philip G. Zimbardo (pp. 17–55). Springer International Publishing, Switzerland (2015)

  74. 74.

    Zimbardo, P.G., Keough, K.A., Boyd, J.N.: Present time perspective as a predictor of risky driving. Personal. Indiv. Differ. 23(6), 1007–1023 (1997).

Download references


The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Ministry of Education, Malaysia for funding this research (Fundamental Research Grant Scheme–FRGS/1/2018/SS03/MMU/03/4).


The study is funded by Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (Fundamental Research Grant Scheme—FRGS/1/2018/SS03/MMU/03/04.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kim Piew Lai.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The authors declare that the study was non-human intervention. The study used survey to sought responses voluntarily from older adults as respondents. The study allowed the respondents to withdraw from answering the survey at any stage if they wish to do so.

Consent to participate

The authors declare that all respondents had been sought for their consent to participate in the study.

Consent for publication

The authors give consent for the Universal Access in the Information Society of identifiable details, which can include table(s) and figure(s) to be published in the above Journal.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lai, K.P., Chong, S.C. Influences of time perspectives and perceived values on continuance intention to engage in social media amongst older adults for healthcare-related purposes. Univ Access Inf Soc (2021).

Download citation


  • Older adults
  • Social media
  • Time perspectives
  • Perceived values
  • Continuance intention