Effects of augmented reality-based multidimensional concept maps on students’ learning achievement, motivation and acceptance


In this study, an augmented reality-based multidimensional concept map (ARMCM) learning system is proposed for conducting mobile learning activities. The subjects consisted of 65 students with an average age of 11 years in an elementary school in Taiwan. They were divided into an ARMCM group and a multidimensional concept map (MCM) group. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The experimental results suggested that students in the ARMCM group performed significantly better than those in the MCM group. Moreover, this study also found that the students using the ARMCM learning approach showed significantly higher motivation than those using the MCM learning approach, because ARMCM learning is able to simulate the complex knowledge that they needed to learn. ARMCM learning was easier to understand and easy to use, as it could simplify the content of the learning knowledge. Pedagogical implications, conclusion, and some suggestions based on this study are provided.

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Correspondence to Chien-Hsu Chen.


Appendix 1

Questionnaire of course acceptance with multidimensional concept maps (All questions were originally written in Chinese)

Perceptions of usefulness
1. The learning material for the course is useful
2. The learning material helps me organize the relationships among different concepts in the course
3. The learning material for the course is helpful
4. The learning approach enables me to understand which parts I will have difficulty with
5. The learning material helps me understand the concepts in the course more easily
6. The learning material of the course helps me to focus on the key points in the concepts
7. The learning approach enables me to concentrate on the course material
8. The learning material for the course is useless
9. The learning approach helps me correct some misconceptions
10. The learning approach provides a helpful way for me to understand the differences among the concepts
11. The learning material for this course is hard to understand
12. The learning approach assists me with connecting the course concepts
13. I think the learning approach would be helpful for other courses
Perceptions of ease of use
14. The content of the material is a waste of time
15. The learning material for the course is clear and easy to follow
16. I feel confident in using the learning material for this course to learn
17. The learning material in this course is easy to learn
18. The learning material in this course is hard to use in the learning activity
19. It is easier to find problems when using the material to learn
20. The content of the material is boring
21. This method of learning is more interesting than other alternatives
22. The learning material for this course is easy to use
23. The learning material for this course is exciting to me

Appendix 2

Interview questions

Q1. Do you like this natural science course? Why?
Q2. What was special to you about this course?
Q3. What impressed you the most about this course? Why?
Q4. After using this concept map to learn, do you think this course was easy to learn, or was it the same as usual?
Q5. How do you feel about this learning method?
Q6. Do you want to use this learn method to learn in the future? Why?

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Chen, C., Huang, C. & Chou, Y. Effects of augmented reality-based multidimensional concept maps on students’ learning achievement, motivation and acceptance. Univ Access Inf Soc 18, 257–268 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-017-0595-z

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  • Augmented reality
  • Multidimensional concept map
  • Mobile learning
  • Interactive learning environments