Text input for motor-impaired people

Abstract

This paper provides an overview of 150 publications regarding text input for motor-impaired people and describes current state of the art. It focuses on common techniques of text entry including selection of keys, approaches to character layouts, use of language models, and interaction modalities. These aspects of text entry methods are further analyzed, and examples are given. The paper also focuses on an overview of reported evaluations by describing experiments, which can be conducted, to assess the performance of a text entry method. Following this overview, a summary of 61 text entry methods for motor-impaired people found in the related literature is presented, classifying those methods according to the aforementioned aspects and reported evaluation. This overview was assembled with the aim to provide a starting point to the new researchers in the field of accessible text entry. The text entry methods are also categorized according to the suitability for various conditions of the users.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19

Notes

  1. 1.

    http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/.

  2. 2.

    http://www.maltron.com/.

  3. 3.

    http://www.naturalpoint.com/smartnav/products/4-at/.

  4. 4.

    http://dl.acm.org/.

  5. 5.

    http://link.springer.com/.

  6. 6.

    http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/.

References

  1. 1.

    Andres, R.O., Hartung, K.J.: Prediction of head movement time using Fitts’ law. Hum. Factors 31(6), 703–713 (1989)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Anson, D., George, S., Galup, R., Shea, B., Vetter, R.: Efficiency of the Chubon versus the QWERTY keyboard. Assist. Technol. 13(1), 40–45 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Antona, M, Stephanidis, C.: An accessible word processor for disabled people. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Österreichische Computer Gesellschaft, ICCHP 2000, pp. 689–696 (2000)

  4. 4.

    Arnott, J.L.: Text entry in augmentative and alternative communication. In: Harbusch, K., Raiha, K.J., Tanaka-Ishii, K. (eds.) Efficient Text Entry, Internationales Begegnungs- und Forschungszentrum für Informatik (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl, Germany, Dagstuhl, Germany, no. 05382 in Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (2006)

  5. 5.

    Ashtiani, B., MacKenzie, I.S.: Blinkwrite2: an improved text entry method using eye blinks. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’10, pp. 339–345. ACM, New York (2010)

  6. 6.

    Baljko, M., Tam, A.: Indirect text entry using one or two keys. In: Proceedings of the 8th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Assets ’06, pp. 18–25. ACM, New York (2006)

  7. 7.

    Barrett, M., San Agustin, J.: Performance evaluation of a low-cost gaze tracker for eye typing. In: Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Communication by Gaze Interaction, COGAIN ’09, pp. 13–18 (2009)

  8. 8.

    Beelders, T.R., Blignaut, P.J.: Measuring the performance of gaze and speech for text input. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’12, pp. 337–340. ACM, New York (2012)

  9. 9.

    Belatar, M., Poirier, F.: Text entry for mobile devices and users with severe motor impairments: handiglyph, a primitive shapes based onscreen keyboard. In: Proceedings of the 10th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, ASSETS ’08, pp. 209–216. ACM, New York (2008)

  10. 10.

    Betke, M., Gips, J., Fleming, P.: The camera mouse: visual tracking of body features to provide computer access for people with severe disabilities. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 10(1), 1–10 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Boissiere, P., Dours, D.: VITIPI: versatile interpretation of text input by persons with impairments. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Part I, ICCHP ’96, pp. 165–172. R. Oldenbourg Verlag GmbH, Munich, Germany (1996)

  12. 12.

    Boissiere, P., Dours, D.: An overview of existing writing assistance systems. In: Proceedings of the IFRATH Workshop 2003 (2003)

  13. 13.

    Boissiere, P., Vigouroux, N., Mojahid, M., Vella, F.: Adaptation of AAC to the context communication: a real improvement for the user illustration through the VITIPI word completion. In: Miesenberger, K., Karshmer, A., Penaz, P., Zagler, W. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7383, pp. 451–458. Springer, Berlin (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chubon, R.A., Hester, M.R.: An enhanced standard computer keyboard system for single-finger and typing-stick typing. Rehabil. Res. Dev. 25(4), 17–24 (1988)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Darragh, J., Witten, I.H., James, M.: The reactive keyboard: a predictive typing aid. Computer 23(11), 41–49 (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Demasco, P.W., McCoy, K.F.: Generating text from compressed input: an intelligent interface for people with severe motor impairments. Commun. ACM 35(5), 68–78 (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Dvorak, A., Merrick, N., Dealey, W., Ford, G.: Typewriting Behavior: Psychology Applied to Teaching and Learning Typewriting. American Book Company, USA (1936)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Evreinova, T., Evreinov, G., Raisamo, R.: Four-key text entry for physically challenged people. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 8th ERCIM Workshop User Interfaces For All, UI4ALL 04 (2004)

  19. 19.

    Farwell, L., Donchin, E.: Talking off the top of your head: toward a mental prosthesis utilizing event-related brain potentials. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 70(6), 510–523 (1988)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Felzer, T., Freisleben, B.: Hawcos: the “hands-free” wheelchair control system. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, Assets ’02, pp. 127–134. ACM, New York (2002)

  21. 21.

    Felzer, T., Nordmann, R.: Alternative text entry using different input methods. In: Proceedings of the 8th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Assets ’06, pp. 10–17. ACM, New York (2006)

  22. 22.

    Felzer, T., Rinderknecht, S.: 3dscan: an environment control system supporting persons with severe motor impairments. In: Proceedings of the 11th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Assets ’09, pp. 213–214. ACM, New York (2009)

  23. 23.

    Felzer, T., Rinderknecht, S.: Using a game controller for text entry to address abilities and disabilities specific to persons with neuromuscular diseases. In: The Proceedings of the 13th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, ASSETS ’11, pp. 299–300. ACM, New York (2011)

  24. 24.

    Felzer, T., Strah, B., Nordmann, R.: Automatic and self-paced scanning for alternative text entry. In: Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on Telehealth/Assistive Technologies, Telehealth/AT ’08, pp. 1–6. ACTA Press, Anaheim (2008)

  25. 25.

    Felzer, T., MacKenzie, I., Beckerle, P., Rinderknecht, S.: Qanti: A software tool for quick ambiguous non-standard text input. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6180, pp. 128–135. Springer, Berlin (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Felzer, T., MacKenzie, I., Rinderknecht, S.: DualScribe: a keyboard replacement for those with Friedreichs Ataxia and related diseases. In: Miesenberger, K., Karshmer, A., Penaz, P., Zagler, W. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7383, pp. 431–438. Springer, Berlin (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Fitts, P.M.: The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. J. Exp. Psychol. 47, 381–391 (1954)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Fu, Y., Huang, T.: hmouse: Head tracking driven virtual computer mouse. In: IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision, 2007, WACV ’07, pp. 30–30 (2007)

  29. 29.

    Garay-Vitoria, N., Abascal, J.: Text prediction systems: a survey. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 4(3), 188–203 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Gong, J., Tarasewich, P.: Alphabetically constrained keypad designs for text entry on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’05, pp. 211–220. ACM, New York (2005)

  31. 31.

    Google: Ngram viewer. http://storage.googleapis.com/books/ngrams/books/datasetsv2.html (2013)

  32. 32.

    Grover, D.L., King, M.T., Kushler, C.A.: Reduced keyboard disambiguating computer. Technical Report, US Patent Publication (1998)

  33. 33.

    Gutowitz, H.: Barriers to adoption of dictionary-based text-entry methods: a field study. In: Proceedings of the 2003 EACL Workshop on Language Modeling for Text Entry Methods, TextEntry ’03, pp. 33–41. Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg (2003)

  34. 34.

    Hamidi, F., Baljko, M., Livingston, N., Spalteholz, L.: Canspeak: A customizable speech interface for people with dysarthric speech. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6179, pp. 605–612. Springer, Berlin (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Hansen, J.P., Johansen, A.S., Hansen, D.W., Itoh, K., Mashino, S.: Language technology in a predictive, restricted on-screen keyboard with ambiguous layout for severely disabled people. In: Proceedings of EACL 2003 Workshop on Language Modeling for Text Entry Methods, EACL ’03 (2003)

  36. 36.

    Hansen, J.P., Tørning, K., Johansen, A.S., Itoh, K., Aoki, H.: Gaze typing compared with input by head and hand. In: Proceedings of the 2004 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’04, pp. 131–138. ACM, New York (2004)

  37. 37.

    Harbusch, K., Kühn, M.: An evaluation study of two-button scanning with ambiguous keyboards. In: Proceedings of the 7th European Conference for the Advancement of Assistive Technology, AAATE’03, pp. 954–958 (2003)

  38. 38.

    Harbusch, K., Kühn, M.: Towards an adaptive communication aid with text input from ambiguous keyboards. In: Proceedings of the tenth conference on European chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistic, EACL ’03, vol. 2, pp. 207–210. Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg (2003)

  39. 39.

    Hild, K.E., Orhan, U., Erdogmus, D., Roark, B., Oken, B., Purwar, S., Nezamfar, H., Fried-Oken, M.: An erp-based brain–computer interface for text entry using rapid serial visual presentation and language modeling. In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Systems Demonstrations, HLT ’11, pp. 38–43. Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg (2011)

  40. 40.

    Huffman, D.: A method for the construction of minimum-redundancy codes. Proc. IRE 40(9), 1098–1101 (1952)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Isokoski, P.: Text input methods for eye trackers using off-screen targets. In: Proceedings of the 2000 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’00, pp. 15–21. ACM, New York (2000)

  42. 42.

    Isokoski, P., Raisamo, R.: Device independent text input: a rationale and an example. In: Proceedings of the Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI ’00, pp. 76–83. ACM, New York (2000)

  43. 43.

    Jacob, R.J.K.: The use of eye movements in human-computer interaction techniques: what you look at is what you get. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 9(2), 152–169 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Johansen, A., Hansen, J.: Augmentative and alternative communication: the future of text on the move. In: Carbonell, N., Stephanidis, C. (eds.) Universal Access Theoretical Perspectives, Practice, and Experience. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2615, pp. 425–441. Springer, Berlin (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Jones, P.E.: Virtual keyboard with scanning and augmented by prediction. In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, The University of Reading, ECDVRAT ’98, pp. 45–51 (1998)

  46. 46.

    Judge, S., Friday, M.: Ambiguous keyboards for AAC. J. Assist. Technol. 5(4), 249–256 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Kim, H., Kim, Y.H.: Optimal designs of ambiguous mobile keypad with alphabetical constraints. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computation, GECCO ’09, pp. 1931–1932. ACM, New York (2009)

  48. 48.

    Kjeldsen, R.: An on-screen keyboard for users with poor pointer control. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Applications and Services, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4556, pp. 339–348. Springer, Berlin (2007)

  49. 49.

    Koester, H.H., Levine, S.P.: Learning and performance of able-bodied individuals using scanning systems with and without word prediction. Assist. Technol. 6(1), 42–53 (1994) (pMID: 10147209)

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Költringer, T., Isokoski, P., Grechenig, T.: Twostick: writing with a game controller. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2007, GI ’07, pp. 103–110. ACM, New York (2007)

  51. 51.

    Kristensson, P.O., Vertanen, K.: The potential of dwell-free eye-typing for fast assistive gaze communication. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’12, pp. 241–244. ACM, New York (2012)

  52. 52.

    Kühn, M., Garbe, J.: Predictive and highly ambiguous typing for a severely speech and motion impaired user. In: Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction (2001)

  53. 53.

    Kushler, C.: AAC: Using a Reduced Keyboard (1998)

  54. 54.

    Lafi, S.M., Hock, S.K.B.: An adaptive text entry method based on single-key minimal scan matrix for people with severe motor disabilities. Sci. Eng. Res. 3(8), 1–5 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Lesher, G., Moulton, B., Higginbotham, D.: Optimal character arrangements for ambiguous keyboards. IEEE Trans. Rehabil. Eng. 6(4), 415–423 (1998a)

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Lesher, G., Moulton, B., Higginbotham, D.J.: Techniques for augmenting scanning communication. Augment. Altern. Commun. 14(2), 81–101 (1998b)

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Likert, R.: A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch. Psychol. 22(140), 5–55 (1932)

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Lin, Y.L., Chen, M.C., Wu, Y.P., Yeh, Y.M., Wang, H.P.: A flexible on-screen keyboard: dynamically adapting for individuals needs. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Applications and Services, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4556, pp. 371–379. Springer, Berlin (2007)

  59. 59.

    Lin, Y.L., Wu, T.F., Chen, M.C., Yeh, Y.M., Wang, H.P.: Designing a scanning on-screen keyboard for people with severe motor disabilities. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5105, pp. 1184–1187. Springer, Berlin (2008)

  60. 60.

    Loewenich, F., Maire, F.: Hands-free mouse-pointer manipulation using motion-tracking and speech recognition. In: Proceedings of the 19th Australasian Conference on Computer–Human Interaction: Entertaining User Interfaces, OZCHI ’07, pp. 295–302. ACM, New York (2007)

  61. 61.

    Lyons, K., Starner, T., Plaisted, D., Fusia, J., Lyons, A., Drew, A., Looney, E.W. Twiddler typing: one-handed chording text entry for mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’04, pp. 671–678. ACM, New York (2004)

  62. 62.

    MacKenzie, I.: KSPC (keystrokes per character) as a characteristic of text entry techniques. In: Patern, F. (ed.) Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2411, pp. 195–210. Springer, Berlin (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    MacKenzie, I.: Modeling text input for single-switch scanning. In: Miesenberger, K., Karshmer, A., Penaz, P., Zagler, W. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7383, pp. 423–430. Springer, Berlin (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    MacKenzie, I.S.: Movement time prediction in human–computer interfaces. Proc. Graph. Interface 92, 140–150 (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    MacKenzie, I.S.: Evaluation of text entry techniques. In: MacKenzie, I.S., Tanaka-Ishii, K. (eds.) Text entry systems: mobility, accessibility, universality, pp. 75–101. Morgan Kaufmann (2007)

  66. 66.

    MacKenzie, I.S.: The one-key challenge: searching for a fast one-key text entry method. In: Proceedings of the 11th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, Assets ’09, pp. 91–98. ACM, New York (2009)

  67. 67.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Felzer, T.: Sak: Scanning ambiguous keyboard for efficient one-key text entry. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 17(3), 11:1–11:39 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Teather, R.J.: Fittstilt: the application of fitts’ law to tilt-based interaction. In: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human–Computer Interaction: Making Sense Through Design, NordiCHI ’12, pp. 568–577. ACM, New York (2012)

  69. 69.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Zhang, S.: The immediate usability of Graffiti. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface, Canadian Information Processing Society, pp. 129–137 (1997)

  70. 70.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Zhang, S.X.: The design and evaluation of a high-performance soft keyboard. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’99, pp. 25–31. ACM, New York (1999)

  71. 71.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Zhang, X.: Eye typing using word and letter prediction and a fixation algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’08, pp. 55–58. ACM, New York (2008)

  72. 72.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Kober, H., Smith, D., Jones, T., Skepner, E.: LetterWise: prefix-based disambiguation for mobile text input. In: Proceedings of the 14th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’01, pp 111–120. ACM, New York (2001)

  73. 73.

    MacKenzie, I.S., Soukoreff, R.W., Helga, J.: 1 thumb, 4 buttons, 20 words per minute: design and evaluation of h4-writer. In: Proceedings of the 24th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’11, pp. 471–480. ACM, New York (2011)

  74. 74.

    Majaranta, P., Räihä, K.J.: Twenty years of eye typing: systems and design issues. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’02, pp. 15–22. ACM, New York (2002)

  75. 75.

    Majaranta, P., MacKenzie, I., Aula, A., Räihä, K.J.: Effects of feedback and dwell time on eye typing speed and accuracy. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 5(2), 199–208 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Majaranta, P., Ahola, U.K., Špakov, O.: Fast gaze typing with an adjustable dwell time. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’09, pp. 357–360. ACM, New York (2009)

  77. 77.

    Manaris, B., Harkreader, A.: SUITEKeys: a speech understanding interface for the motor-control challenged. In: Proceedings of the Third International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, Assets ’98, pp. 108–115. ACM, New York (1998)

  78. 78.

    Manaris, B., McCauley, R.: An intelligent interface for keyboard and mouse control—providing full access to PC functionality via speech. In: Proceedings of 14th International Florida AI Research Symposium, FLAIRS-01, pp. 182–188. AAAI Press (2001)

  79. 79.

    Martin, B., Isokoski, P., Karmann, G., Rollinger, T.: Continuous edgewrite: dictionary-based disambiguation instead of explicit segmentation by the user. In: Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI ’12, pp. 357–364. ACM, New York (2012)

  80. 80.

    Matias, E., MacKenzie, I.S., Buxton, W.: Half-QWERTY: a one-handed keyboard facilitating skill transfer from QWERTY. In: Proceedings of the INTERACT ’93 and CHI ’93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’93, pp. 88–94. ACM, New York (1993)

  81. 81.

    Meixner, J.B., Rosenfeld, J.P.: Detecting knowledge of incidentally acquired, real-world memories using a p300-based concealed-information test

  82. 82.

    Merlin, B., Raynal, M.: Evaluation of spreadkey system with motor impaired users. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6180, pp. 112–119. Springer, Berlin (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Miró, J., Bernabeu, P.: Text entry system based on a minimal scan matrix for severely physically handicapped people. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5105, pp. 1216–1219. Springer, Berlin (2008)

  84. 84.

    Miró-Borrás, J., Bernabeu-Soler, P.: E-everything For All: Text entry for people with severe motor disabilities. In: Proceedings of the Collaborative Electronic Communications and eCommerce Technology and Research Iberoamerica, 6th CollECTeR, pp. 1–7 (2008)

  85. 85.

    Miró-Borrás, J., Bernabeu-Soler, P.: Text entry in the e-commerce age: two proposals for the severely handicapped. J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 4(1), 101–112 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Miró-Borrás, J., Bernabeu-Soler, P., Llinares, R., Igual, J.: Evaluation of an ambiguous-keyboard prototype scanning-system with word and character disambiguation. In: Proceedings of the 24th BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference, BCS ’10, pp. 403–411. British Computer Society, Swinton (2010a)

  87. 87.

    Miró-Borrás, J., Bernabeu-Soler, P., Llinares, R., Igual, J.: A prototype scanning system with an ambiguous keyboard and a predictive disambiguation algorithm. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6180, pp. 136–139. Springer, Berlin (2010b)

    Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Molina, A.J., Rivera, O., Gómez, I., Merino, M., Ropero, J.: Comparison among ambiguous virtual keyboards for people with severe motor disabilities. Modern Eng. Res. 1(2), 288–305 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Morimoto, C.H., Amir, A.: Context switching for fast key selection in text entry applications. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’10, pp. 271–274. ACM, New York (2010)

  90. 90.

    Mourouzis, A., Boutsakis, E., Ntoa, S., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: An accessible and usable soft keyboard. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in Human–Computer Interaction. Ambient Interaction, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4555, pp. 961–970. Springer, Berlin (2007)

  91. 91.

    Newell, A., Rosenbloom, P.S.: Mechanisms of skill acquisition and the law of practice. In: Anderson, J.R. (ed.) Cognitive Skills and Their Acquisition, pp. 1–55. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (1981)

    Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Norman, D.A., Fisher, D.: Why alphabetic keyboards are not easy to use: keyboard layout doesn’t much matter. Hum. Factors J. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. 24(5), 509–519 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Norte, S., Lobo, F.G.: A virtual logo keyboard for people with motor disabilities. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE ’07, pp. 111–115. ACM, New York (2007)

  94. 94.

    Nouza, J., Nouza, T., erva, P.: A multi-functional voice-control aid for disabled persons. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Speech and Computer, Patras, Greece, SPECOM ’05, pp. 715–718 (2005)

  95. 95.

    Nouza, J., Zdansky, J., Cerva, P., Silovsky, J.: Challenges in speech processing of slavic languages (case studies in speech recognition of Czech and Slovak). In: Esposito, A., Campbell, N., Vogel, C., Hussain, A., Nijholt, A. (eds.) Development of Multimodal Interfaces: Active Listening and Synchrony. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5967, pp. 225–241. Springer, Berlin (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Ntoa, S., Margetis, G., Antona, M., Stephanidis, C.: Scanning-based interaction techniques for motor impaired users. In: Kouroupetroglou, G. (eds.) Assistive Technologies and Computer Access for Motor Disabilities, IGI Global, Chap 3 (2013)

  97. 97.

    Orhan, U., Hild, K., Erdogmus, D., Roark, B., Oken, B., Fried-Oken, M.: RSVP keyboard: An EEG based typing interface. In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), pp. 645–648 (2012)

  98. 98.

    Panwar, P., Sarcar, S., Samanta, D.: Eyeboard: a fast and accurate eye gaze-based text entry system. In: 2012 4th International Conference on Intelligent Human Computer Interaction (IHCI), pp. 1–8. IEEE (2012)

  99. 99.

    Pavlovych, A., Stuerzlinger, W.: Less-Tap: A fast and easy-to-learn text input technique for phones. In: Graphics Interface, pp. 97–104 (2003)

  100. 100.

    Perlin, K.: Quikwriting: continuous stylus-based text entry. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’98, pp 215–216. ACM, New York (1998)

  101. 101.

    Polacek, O., Mikovec, Z., Sporka, A.J., Slavik, P.: Humsher: a predictive keyboard operated by humming. In: The Proceedings of the 13th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, ASSETS ’11, pp. 75–82. ACM, New York (2011)

  102. 102.

    Poláček, O., Míkovec, Z.: Hands free mouse: comparative study on mouse clicks controlled by humming. In: CHI ’10 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ’10, pp. 3769–3774. ACM, New York (2010)

  103. 103.

    Poláček, O., Míkovec, Z., Slavík, P.: Predictive scanning keyboard operated by hissing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd IASTED International Conference Assistive Technologies, IASTED, AT 2012, pp. 862–869 (2012a)

  104. 104.

    Poláček, O., Sporka, A.J., Míkovec, Z.l.: Measuring performance of a predictive keyboard operated by humming. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs—Volume Part II, ICCHP’12, pp. 467–474. Springer, Berlin (2012b)

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Prabhu, V., Prasad, G.: Designing a virtual keyboard with multi-modal access for people with disabilities. In: 2011 World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies (WICT), pp. 1133–1138 (2011)

  106. 106.

    Räihä, K.J., Ovaska, S.: An exploratory study of eye typing fundamentals: dwell time, text entry rate, errors, and workload. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’12, pp. 3001–3010. ACM, New York (2012)

  107. 107.

    Rivera, O., Molina, A., Gómez, I.M., Merino, M.: A study of two-inputs scanning methods to enhance the communication rate. In: Emiliani, P., Burzagli, L., Como, A., Gabbanini, F., Salminen, A.L. (eds.) Assistive Technology from Adapted Equipment to Inclusive Environments, AAATE 2009, vol. 25, pp. 132–137. IOS Press (2009)

  108. 108.

    Roark, B., de Villiers, J., Gibbons, C., Fried-Oken, M.: Scanning methods and language modeling for binary switch typing. In: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2010 Workshop on Speech and Language Processing for Assistive Technologies, SLPAT ’10, pp. 28–36. Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg (2010)

  109. 109.

    Roark, B., Beckley, R., Gibbons, C., Fried-Oken, M.: Huffman scanning: using language models within fixed-grid keyboard emulation. Comput. Speech Lang. 27(6), 1212–1234 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    Ronzhin, A., Karpov, A.: Assistive multimodal system based on speech recognition and head tracking. In: Proceedings of 13th European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO ’05 (2005)

  111. 111.

    San Agustin, J., Skovsgaard, H., Hansen, J.P., Hansen, D.W.: Low-cost gaze interaction: ready to deliver the promises. In: CHI ’09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ’09, pp. 4453–4458. ACM, New York (2009)

  112. 112.

    Schadle, I.: Sibyl: AAC System Using NLP Techniques. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Burger, D. (eds.) Computers Helping People with Special Needs. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3118, pp. 1009–1015. Springer, Berlin (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Scott MacKenzie, I., Ashtiani, B.: Blinkwrite: efficient text entry using eye blinks. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 10(1), 69–80 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Sears, A., Karat, C.M., Oseitutu, K., Karimullah, A., Feng, J.: Productivity, satisfaction, and interaction strategies of individuals with spinal cord injuries and traditional users interacting with speech recognition software. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 1(1), 4–15 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    Shieber, S.M., Baker, E.: Abbreviated text input. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, IUI ’03, pp. 293–296. ACM, New York (2003)

  116. 116.

    Sibert, L.E., Jacob, R.J.K.: Evaluation of eye gaze interaction. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’00, pp. 281–288. ACM, New York (2000)

  117. 117.

    Silfverberg, M.: Historical overview of consumer text entry technologies. In: MacKenzie, I.S., Tanaka-Ishii, K. (eds.) Text Entry Systems: Mobility, Accessibility, Universality, pp. 3–26. Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Smith, B.A., Zhai, S.: Optimised virtual keyboards with and without alphabetical ordering: a novice user study. In: Hirose, M. (ed.) Proceedings of Interact 2001IFIP International Conference on HumanComputer Interaction, INTERACT’01, pp. 92–99. IOS Press (2001)

  119. 119.

    Solutions, T.: The fitaly one-finger keyboard (1998)

  120. 120.

    Song, Y.C.: Joystick text entry with word prediction for people with motor impairments. In: Proceedings of the 12th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, ASSETS ’10, pp. 321–322. ACM, New York (2010)

  121. 121.

    Soukoreff, R.W., MacKenzie, I.S.: Measuring errors in text entry tasks: an application of the Levenshtein string distance statistic. In: CHI ’01 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI EA ’01, pp. 319–320. ACM, New York (2001)

  122. 122.

    Soukoreff, R.W., MacKenzie, I.S.: Metrics for text entry research: an evaluation of MSD and KSPC, and a new unified error metric. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’03, pp. 113–120. ACM, New York (2003)

  123. 123.

    Špakov, O., Majaranta, P.: Scrollable keyboards for eye typing. In: Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Communication by Gaze Interaction, COGAIN ’08, pp. 63–66 (2008)

  124. 124.

    Sporka, A., Kurniawan, S., Slavk, P.: Non-speech operated emulation of keyboard. In: Clarkson, J., Langdon, P., Robinson, P. (eds.) Designing Accessible Technology, pp. 145–154. Springer, London (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Sporka, A.J.: Non-speech sounds for user interface control. Ph.D. thesis, CTU in Prague (2008)

  126. 126.

    Sporka, A.J., Felzer, T., Kurniawan, S.H., Poláček, O., Haiduk, P., MacKenzie, I.S.: Chanti: predictive text entry using non-verbal vocal input. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’11, pp. 2463–2472. ACM, New York (2011)

  127. 127.

    Tanaka-Ishii, K., Frank, I.: Dit4dah: Predictive pruning for morse code text entry. In: Su, K.Y., Tsujii, J., Lee, J.H., Kwong, O. (eds.) Natural Language Processing IJCNLP 2004. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3248, pp. 765–775. Springer, Berlin (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  128. 128.

    Tanaka-Ishii, K., Inutsuka, Y., Takeichi, M.: Entering text with a four-button device. In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, COLING ’02, vol. 1, pp. 1–7. Association for Computational Linguistics, Stroudsburg (2002)

  129. 129.

    Teahan, W.: Probability estimation for PPM. In: In Proceedings NZCSRSC’95. http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/wjt (1995)

  130. 130.

    Tregoubov, M., Birbaumer, N.: On the building of binary spelling interfaces for augmentative communication. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(2), 300–305 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Trewin, S., Arnott, J.: Text entry when movement is impaired. In: MacKenzie, I.S., Tanaka-Ishii, K. (eds.) Text Entry Systems: Mobility, Accessibility, Universality, pp. 289–304. Morgan Kaufmann (2007)

  132. 132.

    Tu, J., Tao, H., Huang, T.: Face as mouse through visual face tracking. Comput. Vis. Image Underst. 108(1–2), 35–40 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  133. 133.

    Tuisku, O., Majaranta, P., Isokoski, P., Räihä, K.J.: Now dasher! dash away!: longitudinal study of fast text entry by eye gaze. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’08, pp. 19–26. ACM, New York (2008)

  134. 134.

    Tuisku, O., Surakka, V., Rantanen, V., Vanhala, T., Lekkala, J.: Text entry by gazing and smiling. Adv. Hum.–Comput. Interact. (2013)

  135. 135.

    Urbina, M.H., Huckauf, A.: Alternatives to single character entry and dwell time selection on eye typing. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’10, pp. 315–322. ACM, New York (2010)

  136. 136.

    Vertanen, K., MacKay, D.J.: Speech dasher: fast writing using speech and gaze. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’10, pp. 595–598. ACM, New York (2010)

  137. 137.

    Vigouroux, N., Vella, F., Truillet, P., Raynal, M.: Evaluation od AAC for text input by two groups of subjects: able-bodied subjects and disabled motor subjects. In: Adjunct Proceedings of the 8th ERCIM Workshop User Interfaces For All, UI4ALL 04 (2004)

  138. 138.

    Wandmacher, T., Antoine, J.Y., Poirier, F., Départe, J.P.: Sibylle, an assistive communication system adapting to the context and its user. ACM Trans. Access Comput. 1(1), 6:1–6:30 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  139. 139.

    Wang, C., Guan, C., Zhang, H.: P300 brain–computer interface design for communication and control applications. In: IEEE-EMBS 2005. 27th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 5400–5403 (2005)

  140. 140.

    Ward, D.J., Blackwell, A.F., MacKay, D.J.C.: Dasher—a data entry interface using continuous gestures and language models. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’00, pp. 129–137. ACM, New York (2000)

  141. 141.

    Wilson, A.D., Agrawala, M.: Text entry using a dual joystick game controller. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’06, pp. 475–478. ACM, New York (2006)

  142. 142.

    Witten, I.H., Bell, T.: The zero-frequency problem: estimating the probabilities of novel events in adaptive text compression. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37(4), 1085–1094 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  143. 143.

    Wobbrock, J.: Measures of text entry performance. In: MacKenzie, I.S., Tanaka-Ishii, K. (eds.) Text Entry Systems: Mobility, Accessibility, Universality, Morgan Kaufmann, pp. 47–74 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  144. 144.

    Wobbrock, J., Myers, B.: Trackball text entry for people with motor impairments. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’06, pp. 479–488. ACM, New York (2006)

  145. 145.

    Wobbrock, J.O., Myers, B.A., Kembel, J.A.: EdgeWrite: a stylus-based text entry method designed for high accuracy and stability of motion. In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’03, pp 61–70. ACM, New York (2003)

  146. 146.

    Wobbrock, J.O., Myers, B.A., Aung, H.H.: Writing with a joystick: a comparison of date stamp, selection keyboard, and EdgeWrite. In: Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2004, Canadian Human–Computer Communications Society, School of Computer Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, GI ’04, pp. 1–8 (2004)

  147. 147.

    Wobbrock, J.O., Rubinstein, J., Sawyer, M.W., Duchowski, A.T.: Longitudinal evaluation of discrete consecutive gaze gestures for text entry. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’08, pp. 11–18. ACM, New York (2008)

  148. 148.

    Yin, P.Y., Su, E.P.: Optimal character arrangement for ambiguous keyboards using a PSO-based algorithm. In: 2011 Seventh International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC), vol. 4, pp. 2194–2198 (2011)

  149. 149.

    Zhai, S., Kristensson, P.O.: Shorthand writing on stylus keyboard. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’03, pp. 97–104. ACM, New York (2003)

  150. 150.

    Zhai, S., Hunter, M., Smith, B.A.: The metropolis keyboard—an exploration of quantitative techniques for virtual keyboard design. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST ’00, pp. 119–128. ACM, New York (2000)

  151. 151.

    Zhao, X.A., Guestrin, E.D., Sayenko, D., Simpson, T., Gauthier, M., Popovic, M.R.: Typing with eye-gaze and tooth-clicks. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA ’12, pp. 341–344. ACM, New York (2012)

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research has been supported by the projects TextAble (LH12070; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Rep.) and Automatically Generated UIs in Nomadic Applications (SGS10/290/OHK3/3T/13; FIS 10-802900).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adam J. Sporka.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Polacek, O., Sporka, A.J. & Slavik, P. Text input for motor-impaired people. Univ Access Inf Soc 16, 51–72 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-015-0433-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Text input
  • Text entry methods
  • Motor-impaired people
  • Overview
  • Summary