Speech-based navigation and error correction: a comprehensive comparison of two solutions

  • Jinjuan Feng
  • Shaojian Zhu
  • Ruimin Hu
  • Andrew Sears
Long Paper


Speech-based navigation and error correction can serve as a useful alternative for individuals with disabilities that hinder the use of a keyboard and mouse, but existing solutions available in commercial software are still error-prone and time-consuming. This paper discusses two studies conducted with the goal of improving speech-based navigation and error correction techniques. The first study was designed to improve understanding of an innovative speech-based navigation technique: anchor-based navigation. The second study was longitudinal, spanning seven trials, and was intended to provide insights regarding the efficacy of both traditional target/direction-based navigation and anchor-based navigation. Building on earlier studies that employed similar methodologies and interaction solutions, this paper also provides an informal evaluation of a new correction dialogue. Although the two solutions resulted in the same level of efficiency, the underlying strategies adopted were different, and the anchor-based solution allowed participants to generate better quality text and was perceived to be easier to use. These results suggest that the anchor-based solution could be a promising alternative, especially for novice users as they learn how to use speech-based dictation solutions. The findings of these studies need to be further validated with the involvement of users with disabilities.


Speech-based interaction Navigation Error correction Empirical evaluation Assistive technology 


  1. 1.
    Burmeister, M., Machate, J., Klein, J.: Access for all: HEPHAISTOS—a personal home assistant. Extended Abstracts of CHI 97, 36–37. ACM Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dai, L., Goldman, R., Sears, A., Lozier, J.: Speech-based cursor control using grids: modeling performance and comparisons with other solutions. Behav. Inf. Technol. 24(3), 219–230 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Mauro, C., Gori, M., Maggini, M., Martinelli, E.: Easy access to graphical interfaces by voice mouse. Available from the author at: demauro@dii.unisi.it. (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fellbaum, K., Koroupetroglou, G.: Principles of electronic speech processing with applications for people with disabilities. J. Technol. Disabil. 20(2), 55–85 (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Feng, J., Karat, C.-M., Sears, A.: How productivity improves in hands-free continuous dictation tasks: lessons learned from a longitudinal study. Interact. Comput. 17(3), 265–289 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Feng, J., Sears, A.: Using confidence scores to improve hands-free speech-based navigation in continuous dictation systems. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 11(4), 329–356 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Feng, J., Sears, A., Karat, C.-M.: A longitudinal evaluation of hands-free speech-based navigation during dictation. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 64, 553–569 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Feng, J., Zhu, S., Hu, R., Sears, A.: Speech technology in real world environment: early results from a long term study. The Tenth International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility. Halifax, Canada (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goette, T.: Keys to the adoption and use of voice recognition technology in organizations. Inf. Technol. People 13(1), 67–80 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Halverson, C., Horn, D., Karat, C.-M., Karat, J.: The beauty of errors: Patterns of error correction in desktop speech systems. Proceedings of INTERACT’99, 133–140. IOS Press (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harada, S., Landay, J., Malkin, J., Li, X., Bilmes, J.: The vocal joystick: Evaluation of voice-based cursor control techniques. Proceedings of ASSETS 2006, 197–204. Portland, Oregon (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hauptmann, A.G.: Speech and gestures for graphic image manipulation. Proceedings of CHI’89, 241–245 (1989)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kamel, H., Landay, J.: Sketching images eyes-free: A grid-based dynamic drawing tool for the blind. Proceedings of ASSETS 2002, 33–40 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Karat, C.-M., Halverson, C., Karat, J., Horn, D.: Patterns of entry and correction in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition systems. Proceedings of CHI 99, 568–575 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lai, J., Vergo, J.: MedSpeak: Report creation with continuous speech recognition. Proceedings of CHI 99, 431–438. ACM Press, New York (1997)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lewis, J.R.: Effect of error correction strategy on speech dictation throughput. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 43rd Annual Meeting, 457–461. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Manaris, B., Harkreader, A.: SUITEKeys: A speech understanding interface for the motor-control challenged. Proceedings of the 3rd International ACM SIGCAPH Conference on Assistive Technologies (ASSETS’98), 108–115 (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McNair, A., Waibel, A.: Improving recognizer acceptance through robust, natural speech repair. Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, 1299–1302 (1994)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mihara, Y., Shibayama, E., Takahashi, S.: The migratory cursor: accurate speech-based cursor movement by moving multiple ghost cursors using non-verbal vocalizations, Proceedings of ASSETS’05, 76–83 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Olwal, A., Feiner, S.: Interaction Techniques Using Prosodic Features of Speech and Audio Localization, Proceedings of IUI 2005: International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 284–286. San Diego, CA (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oviatt, S.L.: Multimodal interactive maps: Designing for human performance. Hum. Comput. Interact. 12, 93–129 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oviat, S.L.: Multimodal interfaces. In: Jacko, J.A., Sears, A. (eds.) The human-computer interaction handbook, pp. 286–304. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc, Mahwah (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Phonetic alphabets, historic, English & others. Available via http://www.phonetic.org.au/alphabet.htm
  24. 24.
    Price, K., Sears, A.: Speech-based text entry for mobile handheld devices: an analysis of efficacy and error correction techniques for server-based solutions. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact. 19(3), 279–304 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sears, A., Feng, J., Oseitutu, K., Karat, C.: Hands-free, speech-based navigation during dictation: difficulties, consequences, and solutions. Hum. Comput. Interact. 18(3), 229–257 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sears, A., Karat, C.-M., Oseitutu, K., Karimullah, A., Feng, J.: Productivity, satisfaction, and interaction strategies of individual with spinal cord injuries and traditional users interacting with speech recognition software. Univ. Access. Inf. Soc. 1, 4–15 (2001)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sears, A., Lin, M., Karimullah, A.S.: Speech-based cursor control: understanding the effects of target size, cursor speed, and command selection. Univ. Access. Inf. Soc. 2(1), 30–43 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Suhm, B., Myers, B., Wailbel, A.: Multimodal error correction for speech user interfaces. ACM Trans. Comput. Hum. Interact. 8(1), 60–98 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thomas, J.C., Basson, S., Gardner-Bonneau, D.: Universal access and assistive technology. In: Gardner-Bonneau, D. (ed.) Human factors and voice interactive systems Boston, pp. 135–146. Kluwer, MA (1999)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tong, Q., Wang, Z.: Compensate the Speech Recognition Delays for Accurate Speech-Based Cursor Position Control. Lecture Notes Comp. Sci. 5611, 752–760. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wolf, C., Zadrozny, W.: Evolution of the conversation machine: A case study of bringing advanced technology to the marketplace. Proceedings of CHI 98, 488–495. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jinjuan Feng
    • 1
  • Shaojian Zhu
    • 2
  • Ruimin Hu
    • 1
  • Andrew Sears
    • 2
  1. 1.Computer and Information Sciences DepartmentTowson University8000 York RoadTowsonUSA
  2. 2.Interactive Systems Research Center, Information Systems DepartmentUMBCBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations