Advertisement

Accessible presentation of information for people with visual disabilities

  • Christopher PowerEmail author
  • Helmut Jürgensen
Long Paper

Abstract

Personal computers, palm top computers, media players and cell phones provide instant access to information from around the world. There are a wide variety of options available to make that information available to people with visual disabilities, so many that choosing one for use in any given context can often feel daunting to someone new to the field of accessibility. This paper reviews tools and techniques for the presentation of textual, graphic, mathematic and web documents through audio and haptic modalities to people with visual disabilities.

Keywords

Visual Disability Blind User Cascade Style Sheet Tactile Image Braille Character 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    ABTIM: Videotim. ABTIM company website. http://www.abtim.com/ (2006). Accessed November 2006
  2. 2.
    Ali, H.A., El-Desouky, A.I., El-Gwad, A.O.A.: Realization of high-performance bilingual English/Arabic articulated document analysis and understanding system. Int. J. Comput. Appl. Technol. 16(1), 54–65 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Allan, B.: Kurzweil reading machine. Comput. Mag. 20 (1985)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Allen, A., Kleinman, J., Lawrence, J., Lazar, J.: Methodological issues in using time diaries to collect frustration data from blind computer users. In: Proceedings of HCI International 2005: Emergent Application Domains in HCI, vol. 5, LEA. CD-ROM Publication (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Annamalai, N., Gopal, D., Gupta, G., Guo, H., Karshmer, A.: INSIGHT: a comprehensive system for converting braille based mathematical documents to latex. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 226–230Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arrabito, R., Jürgensen, H.: Using to produce braille mathematical notation in accordance with the Nemeth Braille code for mathematics and science notation, 1972 revision. Undergraduate Thesis (1987)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Asakawa, C., Itoh, T.: User interface of a home page reader. In: Proceedings of the Third International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, pp. 149–156. ACM Press, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Asakawa, C., Takagi, H., Shuichi, I.: A proposal for a dial-based interface for voice output based on blind users’ cognitive listening abilities. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1245–1249Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bach-Y-Rita, P., Hughes, B.: A modified Optacon: towards an educational program. In: Discovery ‘84. Technology for Disabled Persons. Conference Papers, pp. 187–193 (1985)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baillie, C., Burmeister, O.K., Hamlyn-Harris, J.H.: Web-based teaching: communicating technical diagrams with the vision impaired. In: Presentation at the Australian Web Accessibility Conference, OZeWAI 2003. http://opax.swin.edu.au/~303207/Papers/OZeWAI20031.html (2003). Retrieved September 2005
  11. 11.
    Balin, P.: A workstation for blind. Computerised Braille production. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop, pp. 27–32 (1986)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barry, W.A., Gardner, J.A., Raman, T.V.: Accessibility to scientific information by the blind: Dotsplus and ASTER could make it easy. In: Proceedings of the 1994 CSUN Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (Los Angeles). California State University, Northridge (1994)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Batusic, M., Miesenberger, K., Stöger, B.: LABRADOOR, a contribution to making mathematics accessible for the blind. In: Computers and Assistive Technology—6th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, ICCHP ’98. München (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Batusic, M., Miesenberger, K., Stöger, B.: Parser for the Marburg Mathematical Braille Notation NIDRR Project: universal math converter. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1260–1264Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beddoes, M.P., Kanciar, E., George, R.G.: An optical character recogniser for a reading machine for the blind. In: 5th Canadian Medical and Biological Engineering Conference-Digest of papers (1974)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bennett, D.J., Edwards, A.D.N.: Exploration of non-seen diagrams. In: ICAD’98 International Conference on Auditory Display (Glasgow), eWiC, British Computer Society. http://www.icad.org/Proceedings/1998/BennettEdwards1998.pdf. Retrieved 2009
  17. 17.
    Benchmarking tools and methods for the web. http://hcid.soi.city.ac.uk/research/Bentoweb.html (2005)
  18. 18.
    Blades, M., Ungar, S., Spencer, C.: Map using by adults with visual impairments. Prof. Geogr. 51, 539–553 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blattner, M.M., Sumikawa, D.A., Greenberg, R.M.: Earcons and icons: their structure and common design principles. Hum. Comput. Interact. 4(1), 11–44 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blenkhorn, P., Evans, G., King, A., Hastuti Kurniawan, S., Sutcliffe, A.: Screen magnifiers: evolution and evaluation. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 23(5), 54–61 (2003)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braille, L.: Method of writing words, music, and plain songs by means of dots, for use by the blind and arranged for them (1829)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brewster, S.: The impact of haptic ‘touching’ technology on cultural applications. In: Proceedings of EVA2001 (Glasgow), pp. 1–14 (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brown, A., Pettifer, S., Stevens, R.: Evaluation of a nonvisual molecule browser. ASSETS 2004. In: The Sixth International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 40–47 (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown, A., Stevens, R., Pettifer, S.: Issues in the nonvisual presentation of graph based diagrams. In: Proceedings of Eighth International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 671–676 (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brown, C.P., Duda, R.O.: An efficient hrtf model for 3-D sound. In: Proceedings of the IEEE ASSP Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, IEEE (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brown, L.M., Brewster, S.A., Ramloll, R., Burton, M., Riedel, B.: Design guidelines for audio presentation of graphs and tables. In: ICAD 2003 Workshop on Auditory Displays in Assistive Technologies (University of Boston, MA), Boston University Publications Production Department (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brugler, J.: Technology for the Optacon, a reading aid for the blind. In: Eurocon 71 digest, p. 2 (1971)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bucken, R.: Aids for the handicapped. Funkschau 10, p. 36 (1990)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Buczynski, L.: Determination of the combined index of quality of braille printouts and convex copies for the blind. In: Final Program and Proceedings of IS&T’s NIP19: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, p. 780 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Challis, B.P., Edwards, A.D.N.: Design principles for tactile interaction. In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Haptic Human–Computer Interaction. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2058, pp. 17–24 (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chang diagram kit: American Printing House for the Blind (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Braille code for chemical notation: Braille Authority of North America (1997)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen, X., Yuille, A.L.: Detecting and reading text in natural scenes. Proc. 2004 IEEE Comput. Soc. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit. 2, 366–373 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cholewiak, R.W., Collins, A.A.: The effects of a plastic-film covering on vibrotactile pattern perception with the Optacon. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 22(1), 21–26 (1990)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Colwell, C., Petrie, H.: Evaluation of guidelines for designing accessible World Wide Web pages. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Telematics in the Education of the Visually Handicapped (Paris) (1998)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Committee, C. B. A. E. B. S.: Report on tactile graphics. Canadian Braille Authority (2003)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Code for computer braille notation. Braille Authority of North America (1994)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Computer braille code supplement. Flowchart design for applicable Braille codes. Compiled under the authority of the braille authority of North America adopted October 8, 1991. American Printing House for the Blind (1992)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cookson, J., Rasmussen, L.: National library service for the blind and physically handicapped: digital plans and progress. Inf. Technol. Disabil. 7(1) (2000)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cornelis, M., Krikhaar, K.: Guidelines for Describing Study Literature. Federatie Van Nederlandse Blindenbibliotheken, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Craig, J.C.: Vibrotactile pattern perception: extraordinary observers. Science 196(4288), 450–452 (1977)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Crispien, K., Ehrenberg, T.: Evaluation of the “cocktail-party effect” for multiple speech stimuli within a spatial auditory display. J. Audio Eng. Soc. 43(11), 932–941 (1995)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Crispien, K., Petrie, H.: The GUIB spatial auditory display: generation of an audio based interface for blind computer users. In: Proceedings of ICAD 94. Santa Fe (1994)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Crombie, D., Dijkstra, S., Schut, E., Lindsay, N.: Spoken music: Enhancing access to music for the print disabled. In: Proceedings of Computers Helping People with Special Needs 8th International Conference, ICCHP 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2398. pp. 667–674 (2002)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Crombie, D., Leeman, A., Oosting, M., Verboom, M.: Unlocking doors: building an accessible online information node. In: Proceedings of Computers Helping People with Special Needs 8th International Conference, ICCHP 2002. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2398. pp. 374–381 (2002)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cushman, R.-C.: Seeing-eye computers. Creat. Comput. 7(12), 142–145 (1981)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Delmonte, R., Mian, G.A., Tisato, G.: A text-to-speech system for Italian. ICASSP 84. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 2–9 (1984)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Delmonte, R., Mian, G.A., Tisato, G.: A text-to-speech system for unrestricted Italian. In: A.I.C.A. Annual Conference Proceedings, pp. 429–438 (1984)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Derfall, A.: Artificial intelligence as applied to input and output or making computers read and speak. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, pp. 882–884 (1980)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dobrisek, S., Gros, J., Vesnicer, B.T., Pavesic, N., Mihelic, F.: Evolution of the information-retrieval system for blind and visually-impaired people. Int. J. Speech Technol. 6(3), 301–309 (2003)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Donker, H., Klate, P., Peter, G.: The design of auditory interfaces for blind users. In: Proceedings of NordiCHI 2002 (New York), pp. 149–155. ACM Press, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dubus, J.-P., Wattrelot, F.: Self governing braille translation automatic system with typewriter keyboard. Nouvel Automatisme 24(6), 31–35 (1979)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Duchateau, S., Archambault, D., Burger, D.: The accessibility of the World Wide Web for visually impaired people. In: Proceedings of AA-ATE’99 (5th European Conference for the Advancement of Assistive Technology). http://www.snv.jussieu.fr/inova/publi/aaateacces.htm (1999). Retrieved September 2005
  54. 54.
    Durre, K.P., Eisele, M.: A computerized Optacon tutor. RESNA ‘87: meeting the challenge. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Rehabilitation Technology, pp. 437–439 (1987)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Edwards, A.D.: The MATHS project. http://www.cs.york.ac.uk/maths (2005). Retrieved from September 2005)
  56. 56.
    Eramian, M., Jürgensen, H., Li, H., Power, C.: Talking tactile diagrams. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1377–1381Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fellbaum, K., Crispien, K.: Use of acoustic information in screen reader programs for blind computer users: results from TIDE project GUIB. In: Proceedings of the 2nd TIDE Congress, IOS Press, Amsterdam (1995)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Firman, R., Crombie, D.: Miracle: developing a worldwide virtual braille music library. In: Internet Librarian International 2002. Collected Presentations, p. 38 (2002)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fishman, M., Livni, I.: Alignment and size-normalization in a multi-font optical character recognition system. In: 1977 Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel Tenth Convention, pp. 262–266 (1978)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fjelsted, K.: A time-sharing terminal adapted for use by blind computer users. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences III, pp. 34–37 (1979)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Freitas, D., Ferreira, H.: On the application of W3C Guidelines in Website Design from scratch. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 955–959Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fritz, J.P., Barner, K.E.: Design of a haptic graphing system. In: Proceedings of the RESNA ‘96 Annual Conference Exploring New Horizons. Pioneering the 21st Century, pp. 158–160 (1996)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fritz, J.P., Barner, K.E.: Design of a haptic data visualization system for people with visual impairments. IEEE Trans. Rehabil. Eng. 7(3), 372–384 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fukuda, K., Takagi, H., Maeda, J., Asakawa, C.: An assist method for realizing a Web page structure for blind people. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 960–964Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fukuda, T., Kwok, M.G.: Guidelines for tactile figures and maps. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) The Proceedings of HCI International 2005: Universal Access in HCI: Exploring New Interaction Environments, vol. 7. CD-ROM Publication (2005)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gardner, C., Lundquist, R.: MathPlus ToolBox, a computer application for learning basic math skills. In: Proceedings of the 15th IFIP World Computer Congress, Vienna (1998)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gardner, J.A.: Tactile graphics, an overview and resource guide. Inf. Technol. Disabil. 3(4) (1996)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gardner, J.A.: The DotsPlus tactile font set. J. Vis. Impair. Blind. pp. 836–840 (1998)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gardner, J.A.: The quest for access to science by people with print impairments. Comput. Mediat. Commun. 5(1), 502–507 (1998)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gardner, J.A.: Access by blind students and professionals to mainstream math and science. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs, Linz, Austria (2002)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gardner, J.A.: Hands-on tutorial on tiger and win-triangle. In: Proceedings of the 2002 CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (Los Angeles). http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv03n4/article2.htm (2002). Retrieved from September 2005
  72. 72.
    Gardner, J.A.: DotsPlus Braille tutorial, simplifying communication between sighted and blind people. In: Proceedings of the 2003 CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (Los Angeles). http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2003/proceedings/284.htm (2003). Retrieved from September 2005
  73. 73.
    Gardner, J.A., Lundquist, R., Sahyun, S.: Triangle: A tri-modal access program for reading, writing, and doing math. In: Proceedings of the 1998 CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (Los Angeles). http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/1998/proceedings/csun98_104.htm (1998). Retrieved from September 2005
  74. 74.
    Gardner, J.A., Salinas, N.: Gs braille code. Science Access Project, 2005. http://dots.physics.orst.edu/gs_index.html (2005). Retrieved from September 2005
  75. 75.
    Gardner, J.A., Stewart, R., Francioni, J., Smith, A.: Tiger, AGC and win-triangle, removing the barrier to SEM education. In: Proceedings of the 2002 CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities (Los Angeles). http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2002/proceedings/299.htm (2002). Retrieved from September 2005
  76. 76.
    Gardner, W.G.: 3d audio and acoustic environment modeling. Wavearts Incorporated (1999)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Garland, H.T.: Reading with the Optacon: the importance of movement. In: Proceedings of the 26th Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology, p. 143 (1973)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gaver, W.W.: Auditory icons: using sound in computer interfaces. Hum. Comput. Interact. 2(2), 167–177 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goldhor, R.S., Lund, R.T.: University to industry advanced technology transfer. In: 1980 IEEE Engineering Management Conference Record, pp. 204–208 (1980)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Goldstein Jr., M., Stark, R., Yeni-Komshain, G., Grant, D.: Tactile stimulation as an aid for the deaf in production and reception of speech: preliminary studies. In: 1976 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. 598–601 (1976)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guo, H., Karshmer, A., Weaver, C., Mendez, J., Geiger, S.: Computer processing of Nemeth Braille math code. In: Vollmar, R., Wagner, R. (eds.) The Proceedings of Computers Helping People with Special Needs 2000 (Austria). OCG Press, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hankinson, J.C.K., Edwards, A.D.N.: Designing earcons with musical grammars. SIGCAPH Newslett. 65, 16–20 (1999)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Haynes, R.L.: An automated braille translation system. In: 1971 WESCON Technical Papers. Western Electronic Show and Convention (San Francisco), pp. 30–32 1971Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hughes, R.G., Forrest, A.R.: Perceptualisation using a tactile mouse. Proc. Vis. 96, 181–188 (1996)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hussey, S.R.: Mathematical Notation. The Halifax Code. Fraser School, Halifax (1981)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ikei, Y., Wakamatsu, K., Fukuda, S.: Vibratory tactile display of image-based textures. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 17(6), 53–61 (1997)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ina, S.: Development of 2D tactile graphics editor and printing system for document with braille and graphics. In: Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers D-II J77D-II, vol. 10, pp. 1973–1983 (1994)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ina, S.: Development of 2D tactile graphics editor and printing system for document with braille and graphics. In: Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers D-II J77D-II, vol. 10, pp. 1973–1983 (1999)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jacko, J.A., Barreto, A.B., Scott, I.U., Chu, J.Y.M., Vitense, H.S., Conway, F.T., Fain, W.B.: Macular degeneration and visual icon use: deriving guidelines for improved access. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 1(3), 197–206 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jacko, J.A., Rosa, R.H.J., Scott, I.U., Pappas, C.J., Dixon, M.A.: Visual impairment: the use of visual profiles in evaluations of icon use in computer-based tasks. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Interact 12(1), 151–164 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Jacko, J.A., Sears, A.: Designing interfaces for an overlooked user group: considering the visual profiles of partially sighted users. In: Proceedings of ASSETS’98. Third International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, pp. 75–77 (1998)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Jansson, G., Billberger, K., Petrie, H., Colwell, C., Kornbrot, D., Fanger, J., Konig, H., Hardwick, A., Furner, S.: Haptic virtual environments for blind people: exploratory experiments with two devices. Int. J. Virtual Real. 4(1), 10–20 (1999)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jansson, G., Larsson, K.: Identification of haptic virtual objects with different degrees of complexity. In: Proceedings of Eurohaptics 2002, pp. 57–60 (2002)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Jürgensen, H.: Tactile computer graphics. Manuscript, 48 pp. (1996)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jürgensen, H., Power, C.: An application framework for the presentation of tactile documents. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in HCI: Exploring New Interaction Environments, vol. 7. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, CD-ROM Publication (2005)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kaczmarek, K., Bach-y Rita, P., Tompkins, W.J., Webster, J.G.A.: Tactile vision-substitution system for the blind: computer-controlled partial image sequencing. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng BME 32(8), 602–608 (1985)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kaczmarek, K.A., Bach-y Rita, P., Tompkins, W.J., Webster, J.G.: A time-division multiplexed tactile vision substitution system. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Biosensors (Cat. No. 84CH2068-5), pp. 101–106 (1984)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kamentsky, L.: The kurzweil reading machine: current developments. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computers in the Education and Employment of the Handicapped, pp. 97–100 (1983)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Karshmer, A., Gupta, G., Geiger, S., Weaver, C.: Reading and writing mathematics: the mavis project. Behav. Inf. Technol. 18(1), 2–10 (1999)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Karshmer, A.I., Gillan, D.: How well can we read equations to blind mathematics students: some answers from psychology. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1290–1294 (1998)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kerscher, G.: Daisy consortium: information technology for the world’s blind and print-disabled population-past, present, and into the future. Libr. Hi. Tech. 19(1), 11–14 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kimbrough, B.T.: Daisy on our desktops? a review of lpplayer 2.4. Libr. Hi. Tech. 19(1), 32–34 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Klatzky, R.L., Lederman, S.J.: Toward a computational model of constraint driven exploration and haptic object identification. Perception 22, 591–621 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kurzweil, R.: The kurzweil reading machine: the complete personal reading machine for the blind. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 1982, pp. 727–731 (1982)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Landau, S.: Tactile graphics: strategies for non-visual seeing. Thresholds (1999)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Landau, S., Gourgey, K.: Development of a talking tactile tablet. Inf. Technol. Disabil. 7(2). http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv07.htm (2001)
  107. 107.
    Larkin, J.H., Simon, H.A.: Why a diagram is (sometimes) worth ten thousand words. Cogn. Sci. 11, 65–99 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lasko-Harvill, A., Harvill, Y., Steele, R., Hennies, D., Verplank, W., MacConnell, B.: Audio and tactile feedback strategies for tracking. RESNA ‘87: meeting the challenge. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Rehabilitation Technology, pp. 459–461 (1987)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lecuyer, A., Mobuchon, P., Megard, C., Perret, J., Andriot, C., Colinot, J.-P.: Homere: a multimodal system for visually impaired people to explore virtual environments. In: Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality 2003, pp. 251–258 (2003)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lederman, S.J., Abbott, S.: Texture perception: studies of intersensory organization using a discrepancy paradigm and visual versus tactual psychophysics. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 7(4), 902–915 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lederman, S.J., Klatzky, R.L.: Designing haptic and multi-modal interfaces: a cognitive scientist’s perspective. In: Farber, G., Hoogen, J. (eds.) Proceedings of Collaborative Research Centre, vol. 453, pp. 71–80. Technical University of Munich, Munich (2001)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lee, S.: Effect of the field-of-view against target ratio in haptic exploration. Design of computing systems: cognitive considerations. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human–Computer Interaction (HCI International ‘97), vol. 1, pp. 595–598 (1997)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Leimann, E., Schulze, H.-H.: Earcons and icons: an experimental study. Human–computer interaction. Interaction 95, 49–54 (1995)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lerner, E.J.: Products that talk [computers]. IEEE Spectr 19(7), 32–37 (1982)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lokki, T., Gröhn, M.: Navigation with auditory cues in a virtual environment. In: IEEE MultiMedia, pp. 80–86 (2005)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Luk, R., Yeung, D., Lu, Q., Leung, E., Li, S. Y., Leung, F.: Digital library access for chinese visually impaired. ACM 2000. Digital Libraries. In: Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 244–245 (2000)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Luk, R.W.P., Yeung, D.S., Lu, Q., Leung, H.L., Li, S.Y., Leung, F.: Asab: a chinese screen reader. Softw Pract Exp 33(3), 201–219 (2003)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lundquist, R., Barry, W.A., Gardner, J.A.: Scientific reading and writing by blind people-technologies of the future. In: Proceedings of the 1995 CSUN Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles, CA (1995)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lytle, F.: Wordperfect 7 macros for translation of Nemeth Braille. Personal Correspondence (2004)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Magnusson, C., Rassmus-Gröhn, K., Sjöström, C., Danielsson, H.: Navigation and recognition in complex haptic virtual environments—reports from an extensive study with blind users. In: Proceedings of Eurohaptics. http://www.eurohaptics.vision.ee.ethz.ch/2002.shtml (2002)
  121. 121.
    Martial, O., Dufresne, A.: Audicon: easy access to graphical user interfaces for blind persons-designing for and with people. Human–computer interaction. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human–Computer Interaction (HCI International ‘93), pp. 808–813 (1993)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mates, B.: CD-rom: reference format for the visually impaired and physically handicapped. Computers in Libraries ‘90. In: Proceedings of the 5th Annual Computers in Libraries Conference, pp. 113–116 (1990)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    McConnell, B.: The handicapped: a low cost braille printer. Creat. Comput. 8(10), 186–188 (1982)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    McKnight, S., Melder, N., Barrow, A.L., Harwin, W.S., Wann, J.: Psychophysical size discrimination using multi-fingered haptic interfaces. In: Proceedings of Eurohaptics 2004. CD-ROM Publication (2004)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    McKnight, S., Melder, N., Barrow, A.L., Harwin, W.S., Wann, J.P.: Perceptual cues for orientation in a two finger haptic grasp task. In: Proceedings of the First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 549–550. IEEE (2005)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    McLaughlin, M.L., Sukhatme, G., Shahabi, C.: The haptic museum. In: Proceedings of the EVA 2000 Conference on Electric Imaging and Visual Arts (2000)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Melen, R.D.: A one-hand Optacon. 1973 WESCON technical papers. West. Electron. Show Conv. 17, 7–13 (1973)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Melen, R.D., Meindl, J.D.: Electrocutaneous stimulation in a reading aid for the blind. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 18(1), 1–3 (1971)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Melen, R.D., Meindl, J.D.: A transparent electrode ccd image sensor for a reading aid for the blind. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. SC 9(1), 41–49 (1974)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Melton, L.: Mister impossible: ray kurzweil. Comput. Electron 22(7), 40–45 (1984)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    METEC: Braille-großdisplay dmd 120060. Ingenieur-Gesellschaft mbH, Stuttgart (1989)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Miller, C.: Multimedia statistical diagrams. Undergraduate thesis, The University of Western Ontario (1996)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Minamino, T.: Canon’s activity on computer devices for the disabled. In: Proceedings of the IISF/ACM Japan International Symposium. Computers as our Better Partners, pp. 154–155 (1994)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Morgan, G.: A word in your ear: library services for print disabled readers in the digital age. Electron. Libr. 21(3), 234–239 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Morley, S.: Digital talking books on a pc: a usability evaluation of the prototype daisy playback software. Inf. Technol. Disabil. 7(1). http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv07.htm (2000). Retrieved from September 2005
  136. 136.
    Morley, S., Petrie, H., O’Neill, A.-M., McNally, P.: The use of non-speech sounds in a hypermedia interface for blind users. In: Edwards, A.D.N., Arató, A., Zagler W.L. (eds.) Proceedings of ICCHP 98 (Vienna), Austrian Computer Society Book Series, vol. 118, pp. 205–214. Austrian Computer Society (1998)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Muhlbacher, S., Buschbeck, F.: Reading device for visually handicapped persons. Computers for Handicapped Persons, pp. 163–171 (1989)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nara, T., Takasaki, M., Maeda, T., Higuchi, T., Ando, S., Tachi, S.: Surface acoustic wave tactile display. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 56–63 (2001)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nemec, V., Mikovec, Z., Slavik, P.: Adaptive navigation of visually impaired users in a virtual environment on the World Wide Web. Universal Access. Theoretical perspectives, practice, and experience. In: 7th ERCIM International Workshop on User Interfaces for All. Revised Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2615, pp. 68–79 (2003)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Nemec, V., Sporka, A., Slavik, P.: Haptic and spatial audio based navigation of visually impaired users in virtual environment using low cost devices. User-centered interaction paradigms for universal access in the information society. In: 8th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for all. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3196, pp. 452–459 (2004)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nemeth, A.: The Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics and Science Notation, 1972 Revision. American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville (1985)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Niederst, J.: Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd edn. O’Reilly and Associates, Sebastopol (2002)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Nielson, G., Harvey, G.: Interactive talking books for the blind on CD-rom. In: Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins National Search for Computing Applications to Assist Persons with Disabilities, pp. 181–184 (1992)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ohuchi, M., Iwaya, Y., Suzuki, Y., Munekata, T.: Cognitive map formation of blind persons in a virtual sound environment. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Auditory Display (2006)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    O’Malley, M.H., Larkin, D.K., Peters, E.W.: Beyond the reading machine: what the next generation of intelligent text-to-speech systems should do for the user. In: Official Proceedings of SPEECH TECH ‘86. Voice Input/Output Applications Show and Conference, pp. 216–219 (1986)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Omotayo, O.R.: Converting text into speech in real time with microcomputers. Microprocess. Microsyst. 8(9), 481–487 (1984)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Palmer, B., Pontelli, E.: Experiments in translating and navigating digital formats for mathematics-a progress report. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1320–1324Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Pavesic, N., Gros, J., Dobrisek, S., Mihelic, F.: Homer ii-man–machine interface to internet for blind and visually impaired people. Comput. Commun. 26(5), 438–443 (2003)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Penn, P., Petrie, H., Colwell, C., Kornbrot, D., Furner, S., Hardwick, A.: The haptic perception of texture in virtual environments: an investigation with two devices. In: First International Workshop: Haptic Human–Computer Interaction, pp. 92–97 (2000)Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Petrie, H., Colwell, C., Evenepoel, F.: Tools to assist authors in creating accessible World Wide Web pages. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Telematics in the Education of the Visually Handicapped, Paris. http://www.snv.jussieu.fr/inova/publi/ntevh/ntevh_ang.htm (2005)
  151. 151.
    Petrie, H., Fisher, W., O’Neill, A.-M., di Segni, Y., Pyfers, L., Gladstone, K., Rundle, C., van den Eijnde, O., Weber, G.: Navigation in multimedia documents for print disabled readers. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1457–1461Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Petrie, H., Harrison, C., Dev, S.: Describing images on the web: a survey of current practice and prospects for the future. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) Universal Access in HCI: Exploring New Dimensions of Diversity, vol. 8. LEA. CD-ROM Publication (2005)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Petrie, H., Morley, S.: The use of non-speech sounds in non-visual interfaces to the MS-windows GUI for blind computer users. In: ICAD’98 International Conference on Auditory Display (Glasgow), eWiC, British Computer Society (1998). http://ewic.bcs.org/conferences/1998/auditory/papers/paper22.htm (2005)
  154. 154.
    Petrie, H., Morley, S., McNally, P., Graziani, P., Emiliani, P.L.: Access to hypermedia systems for blind students. In: Burger, D. (ed.) New technologies in the education of the visually handicapped. INSERM/John Libbey Eurotext (1996)Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Plummer, J.D., Meindl, J.D.: Mos electronics for a reading aid for the blind. 1970 IEEE Int. Solid State Circ. Conf., pp. 168–169 (1970)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Plummer, J.D., Meindl, J.D.: A reading aid for the blind using mos electronics. In: Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Engineering in Medicine and Biology (1970)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Plummer, J.D., Meindl, J.D.: Mos electronics for a portable reading aid for the blind. IEEE J. Solid State Circ. SC, pp. 111–119 (1972)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Poh, S.-P.: Talking diagrams. Master’s thesis. Also technical report No. 459, The University of Western Ontario (1995)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Pontelli, E., Xiong, W., Gupta, G., Karshmer, A.I.: A domain specific language framework for non-visual browsing of complex HTML structures. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies, New York. ACM Press, New York, pp. 180–187 (2000)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Portele, T., Kramer, J.: Adapting a TTS system to a reading machine for the blind. In: Proceedings ICSLP 96. Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (Cat. No.96TH8206), vol. 1, pp. 184–187 (1996)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Preddy, M., Gardner, J., Sahyun, S., Skrivanek, D.: Dotsplus: how-to make tactile figures and tactile formatted math. In: Proceedings of the 1997 CSUN Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles. http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/1997/proceedings/csun97.htm (1997)
  162. 162.
    Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Tactile Diagrams, Maps and Pictures, Hatfield. http://www.nctd.org/Conference/Conf2002/Programme.asp (2002)
  163. 163.
    Raman, T.: Speech-enabling the semantic WWW. http://emacspeak.sourceforge.net/publications/semantic-www.html (2005)
  164. 164.
    Raman, T.V.: Audio System for Technical Readings. Ph.D. thesis. Appeared also as Technical Report TR 941408 and Spoken on Tape Cornell University (1994)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Raman, T.V.: Emacspeak: a speech-enabling interface. Dr. Dobb’s J. 22(9), 18–23 (1997)Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Rangin, H.B., Barry, W.A., Gardner, J.A., Lundquist, R., Preddy, M., Salinas, N.: Scientific reading and writing by blind people-technologies of the future. In: Proceedings of the 1996 CSUN, in Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles (1996)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Reed, C., Lederman, S.J., Klatzky, R.L.: Haptic integration of planar size with hardness, texture, planar contour. Can. J. Psychol. 44(4), 522–545 (1990)Google Scholar
  168. 168.
  169. 169.
    Roberts, J.: NIST Refreshable Tactile Graphic Display: a new low-cost technology. In: Proceedings of the 2004 CSUN Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles. California State University, Northridge. http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2004/proceedings/csun04.htm (2004)
  170. 170.
    Rosen, L., Jaeggin, R.B., Ho, P.W.: Enabling blind and visually impaired library users: in magic and adaptive technologies. Libr. Hi. Tech. 9(3), 45–61 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Roth, P., Giess, C., Petrucci, L., Pun, T.: Adapting haptic game devices for non-visual graph rendering. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on HCI: Universal Access, pp. 977–981 (2001)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Rothberg, M., Wlodkowski, T.: CD-roms for math and science. Information Technology and Disabilities, vol. 5. http://www.rit.edu/~easi/itd/itdv05.htm (1998)
  173. 173.
    Sahyun, S., Gardner, J., Gardner, C.: Audio and haptic access to math and science -audio graphs, triangle, the mathplus toolbox, and the tiger printer. In: Proceedings of the 15th IFIP World Computer Congress, Vienna (1998)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Salsbury, P.J.: A monolithic image sensor for a reading aid for the blind. In: Solid State Sensors Symposium, pp. 29–32 (1970)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Sánchez, J., Flores, H.: Memory enhancement through audio. In: Proceedings of ACM ASSETS. ACM Press, New York, pp. 24–31 (2004)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Savoie, R., Erickson, P.: Experimental simulation of an optical character recognition speech output reading machine for the blind. SIGCAPH Newslett. 24(10), 30–35 (1978)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Schweikhardt, W.: LAMBDA: a European system to access mathematics with braille and audio synthesis. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computers Helping People with Special Needs ICCHP, no. 4061. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Scoy, F.L.V., Kawai, T., Fullmer, A., Stamper, K., Wojciechowska, I., Perez, A., Vargas, J., Martinez, S.: The sound and touch of mathematics: a prototype system. In: Proceedings of the Phantom Users Group (2001). http://www.cs.sandia.gov/SEL/conference/pug01/papers.htm. Retrieved from September 2005
  179. 179.
    Sef, T., Gams, M.: Speaker (govorec): a complete Slovenian text-to-speech system. Int. J. Speech. Tech. pp. 277–287 (2003)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Shinohara, M.: Vocal character reader for persons with disabled sight. J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. 43(5), 336–343 (1987)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Siegfried, R.: A scripting language to help the blind to program visually. SIGPLAN notices, vol. 37, pp. 53–56 (2002)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Slaby, W.: A universal braille translator. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Pisa (1973)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Slaby, W.A.: Automatische Übersetzung in blindenkurzschrift. EDV in Medizin und Biologie 5, 111–116 (1974)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Slaby, W.A.: Automatische Erzeugung formaler Übersetzungssysteme aus endlichen Mengen von Beispielen. Tech. Rep. 24, Rechenzentrum, Universität Münster, Schriftenreihe (1977)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sodren, P., Semwal, S.K.: Haptic help for orientation in unknown environments. In: Stephanidis, C. (ed.) (189), pp. 1330–1334Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Splett, J.: Linguistische Probleme bei der automatischen Produktion der deutschen Blindenkurzschrift. Z. Dialektologie und Linguistik (1973)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Steele, E.L., Puckett, R.E.: Enhancement of grade 2 braille translation. Papers presented at the Western electronic show and convention, pp. 30–34 (1971)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Stein, B.K.: The optacon: Past, present, and future. DIGITEYES: The Computer Users’ Network News (1998)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Stephanidis, C. (ed.): Universal Access in HCI: Inclusive design in the information society, vol. 4. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah (2003)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Stevens, R., Wright, P., Edwards, A.D.N.: Strategy and prosody in listening to algebra. In: Adjunct Proceedings of HCI’95: people and computers, Huddersfield, British Computer Society, pp. 160–166 (1995)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Stevens, R.D.: Principle for the design of auditory interfaces to present complex information to blind computer users. Ph.D. thesis, The University of York, UK (1996)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Stevens, R.D., Edwards, A.D.N.: An approach to the evaluation of assistive technology. In: Proceedings of Assets ’96, ACM, pp. 64–71 (1996)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Stevens, R.D., Wright, P.C., Edwards, A.D.N., Brewster, S.A.: An audio glance at syntactic structure based on spoken form. In: Interdisciplinary Aspects on Computers Helping People with Special Needs. 5th International Conference, ICCHP ’96 (2), pp. 627–635 (1996)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Stone, R.J.: Haptic feedback: a potted history, from telepresence to virtual reality. http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/~stephen/workshops/haptic/papers/stone.pdf (2005)
  195. 195.
    Sully, P.: Alone with a book. Nat. Electron. Rev. 18, 9–12 (1983)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Tactile graphics starter kit. American Printing House for the Blind (2005)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tornil, B., Baptiste-Jessel, N.: Use of force feedback pointing devices for blind users. User-Centered Interaction Paradigms for Universal Access in the Information Society. In: 8th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for all. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3196, pp. 479–485 (2004)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Truillet, P., Vigouroux, N.: Multimodal presentation of html documents for blind using extended cascading style sheets. In: Proceedings of the 9th WWW conference, Foretec Seminars, Inc. http://www9.org/final-posters/4/poster4.html (2000)
  199. 199.
    Tyler, M., Haase, S., Kaczmarek, K., Bach-y Rita, P.: Development of an electrotactile glove for display of graphics for the blind: preliminary results. In: Conference Proceedings. Second Joint EMBS-BMES Conference 2002. 24th Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society (Cat. No.02CH37392). vol. 3, pp. 2439–2440Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Tzoukermann, E.: Issues in French text-to-speech synthesis. J. Acoust Soc. Am. 95, 2816 (1994)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Tzoukermann, E.: Text-to-speech for french. In: The Proceedings of the ESCA Workshop on speech synthesis (1994)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Ungar, S.: Cognitive mapping without visual experience (2000)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: The role of tactile maps in mobility training. Br. J. Vis. Impair. 11, 59–62 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Mental rotation of a tactile layout by young visually impaired children. Perception 24, 891–900 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Visually impaired children’s strategies for memorizing a map. Br. J. Vis Impair, pp. 27–32 (1995)Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: The ability of visually impaired children to locate themselves on a tactile map. J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 90, 526–535 (1996)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Can blind and visually impaired people read tilted braille labels? In: Proceedings of the Maps and Diagrams for Blind and Visually-impaired People: Needs, Solutions, Developments, Ljubljana, International Cartographic Association (1996)Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: The construction of cognitive maps by children with visual impairments. In: Portugali, J. (ed.) The construction of cognitive maps. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 247–273 (1996)Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: The use of tactile maps to aid navigation by blind and visually impaired people in unfamiliar urban environments. In: Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Navigation, Orientation and Navigation Conference, Oxford, Royal Institute of Navigation (1996)Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Strategies for knowledge acquisition from cartographic maps by blind and visually impaired adults. Cartogr. J. 34, 93–110 (1997)Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Teaching visually impaired children to make distance judgements from a tactile map. J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 91, 221–233 (1997)Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: Can a tactile map facilitate learning of related information by blind and visually impaired people? a test of the conjoint retention hypothesis. In: Proceedings of Thinking with Diagrams ’98, Aberystwyth, University of Aberystwyth (1998)Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C.: The effect of orientation on braille reading by blind and visually impaired people: the role of context. J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 92, 454–463 (1998)Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ungar, S., Blades, M., Spencer, C., Morsley, K.: Can visually impaired children use tactile maps to estimate directions? J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 88, 221–233 (1994)Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ungar, S., Espinosa, A., Blades, M., Ochaíta, E., Spencer, C.: Blind and visually impaired people using tactile maps. Cartogr. Perspect. 28, 4–12 (1998)Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Vayda, A.J., Whalen, M.P., Hepp, D.J., Gillies, A.M.: A contextual reasoning system for the interpretation of machine printed address block images. Proceedings. In: Second Annual Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval, pp. 429–441 (1993)Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Viewplus technologies. Online Product Web Site Retrieved from http://www.viewplustech.com/ (2002)
  218. 218.
    Vincent, A.T.: Talking basic and talking braille: two applications of synthetic speech. Comput. Educ. 45(11), 10–12 (1983)Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    W3C:WAI. Policies relating to web accessibility. http://www.w3.org/WAI/ (2005)
  220. 220.
    Wall, S., Brewster, S.: Feeling What You Hear: Tactile Feedback for Navigation of Audio Graphs. In: CHI 2006 Proceedings, ACM Press, New York, pp. 1123–1132 (2006)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Walsh, P., Gardner, J.A.: Tiger: A new age of tactile text and graphics. In: Proceedings of the 2001 CSUN International Conference on Technology and Persons with Disabilities, Los Angeles (2001)Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Watanabe, T.: Bep; Japanese and English text-to-speech system for the Japanese visually impaired and their usage of computer with speech output. Joho Shori 43(8), 873–879 (2002)Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Watanabe, T., Okada, S., Ifukube, T.: Development of a cd-rom books vocalizing system for blind persons in a gui environment. Trans. Inst. Electron. Info. Commun. Eng. D-I J82D-I 4(4), 589–592 (1999)Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Way, T.P., Barner, K.E.: Automatic visual to tactile translation—part I: human factors, access methods, and image manipulation. IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng. 5(1), 81–94 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Way, T.P., Barner, K.E.: Automatic visual to tactile translation—part II: human factors, access methods, and image manipulation. IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng. 5(1), 81–94 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Williams, T.T., Lambert, R.M., White, C.W.: Interactive braille output for blind computer users. Behav. Res. Methods Instrum. Comput. 17, 265–267 (1985)Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Wood, S.L., Marks, P., Pearlman, J.: A segmentation algorithm for ocr application to low resolution images. In: Conference Record of the Fourteenth Asilomar Conference on Circuits, Systems and Computers, pp. 411–415 (1980)Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Woolfson, L.: Braille translation by computer. Microprocess. Softw. Q. 10(2), 44–46 (1983)Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Yanagisawa, S., Yonezawa, Y., Ito, K., Hashimoto, M.: A high-density and high-speed tactile display panel using passive-writing method. J. Inst. Image. Elect. Eng. Jpn. 33(1), 19–26 (2004)Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Yesilada, Y., Stevens, R., Goble, C., Hussein, S.: Rendering tables in audio: the interaction of structure and reading styles. ASSETS 2004. In: The Sixth International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 16–23 (2004)Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Yonezawa, Y., Hattori, H., Itoh, K.: A method of nonimpact braille printer by electro-thermosensitive process. In: Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers C J70C, pp. 1545–1552 (1987)Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    York, B., Karshmer, A.: Tools to support blind programmers. In: Seventeenth Annual ACM Computer Science Conference, pp. 5–11 (1989)Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Yu, W., Brewster, S.: Comparing two haptic interfaces for multimodal graph rendering. In: Proceedings 10th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. HAPTICS, pp. 3–9 (2002)Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Yu, W., Brewster, S.: Evaluation of multimodal graphs for blind people. J. Univ. Access. Info. Soc. (2003)Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Yu, W., Kangas, K., Brewster, S.: Web-based haptic applications for blind people to create virtual graphs. In: Proceedings 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems. HAPTICS, pp. 318–325 (2003)Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Yu, W., Ramloll, R., Brewster, S., Ridel, B.: Exploring computer-generated line graphs through virtual touch. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications (Cat. No. 01EX467), vol. 1, pp. 72–5 (2001)Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Zajicek, M., Powell, C.: Building a conceptual model of the World Wide Web for visually impaired users. In: Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society, Annual Conference, Grantham (1997)Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Zajicek, M., Powell, C.: The use of information rich words and abridged language to orientate users to the World Wide Web. In: IEEE Colloquium on Prospects for Spoken Language Technology (Digest no. 1997/138), pp. 7–11 (1997)Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Zajicek, M., Powell, C., Reeves, C.: Evaluation of a World Wide Web scanning interface for blind and visually impaired users. In: Proceedings of HCI International ’99, Munich. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/speech/publications/65_hciin.htm (2005)
  240. 240.
    Zandifar, A., Duraiswami, R., Chahine, A., Davis, L.: A video based interface to textual information for the visually impaired. In: Proceedings Fourth IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, pp. 325–330 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of YorkYorkUK
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations