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A security protocol for D2D communications in 5G networks using elliptic curve cryptography


Advancements in the field of wireless and mobile communication motivate academia, industry, and standardisation organisations to explore new technologies to improve overall efficiency, spectrum utilisation, power consumption, and security. One of the most essential technologies proposed for short-range communications, which will play a key role in 5G wireless networks, is device-to-device (D2D) communications. D2D communication enables direct communication between two devices when they are in close proximity without requiring the help of a fixed infrastructure like base stations. Despite the significant benefits provided by D2D communications, this new networking communication paradigm introduces unique security threats to D2D services that should be solved in order to limit any malicious attacks. Towards this end, in this paper, we focus on secure D2D communications and propose a protocol for establishing secure D2D communication using elliptic curve cryptography. The protocol utilises: (i) specific Mobile Identifiers acquired from the hardware of the mobile phone (i.e. IMEI) and the SIM card (i.e. IMSI, MSISDN) provided by the mobile operator and (ii) the SIM storage for saving private keys or signature data. The proposed security protocol is verified and validated with the help of the Scyther tool, and the performance is evaluated in terms of resiliency analysis.

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Availability of data and materials/Research data policy and data availability statements

The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request after the publication of the article.

Code availability

The code implemented during the current study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request after the publication of the article.


  1. Any BS can authenticate by being a cloud device that is online and has access to the operators’ database.



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This research is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement \(\hbox {N}^{\circ } 739578\) and the government of the Republic of Cyprus through the Directorate General for European Programmes, Coordination and Development.

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Kishore, R., Ioannou, I., Christophorou, C. et al. A security protocol for D2D communications in 5G networks using elliptic curve cryptography. Int. J. Inf. Secur. 21, 1389–1408 (2022).

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  • Device-to-device (D2D) communications
  • Security
  • Elliptic curve cryptography
  • Security protocol
  • D2D