, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 177–183 | Cite as

Diversity of anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing bacteria in low-salt environments analyzed with a newly developed PCR-based method

  • Melody Cabrera Ospino
  • Hisaya KojimaEmail author
  • Tomohiro Watanabe
  • Tomoya Iwata
  • Manabu Fukui
Rapid communication Note on important and novel findings


Anaerobic arsenite oxidation is potentially important but the least understood process in the arsenic cycle. The catalytic subunit of the key enzyme for anaerobic arsenite oxidation is encoded by the arxA gene. In this study, a novel primer pair for the arxA gene was designed to detect diverse sequences of this notable gene. Further modification of the designed primer was made by adding extra bases to its 5′- end. This modification made it possible to analyze the PCR products with TA cloning, which provides higher throughput of investigations. With the combination of modified primer pair and TA cloning, diverse arxA gene sequences were effectively obtained from samples of lake water, spring water, and hot spring microbial mat. The sequences detected in the samples characterized by low salinity and nearly neutral pH were phylogenetically distinct from the majority of previously known arxA genes, found in the genome of alkaliphiles and halophiles.


Arsenic Arsenite oxidase arxA PCR detection Primer design 



We are grateful to Arisa Shinohara for technical assistance. This work was supported by KAKENHI Grant Number 15K07209 to Kojima.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10201_2018_539_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (412 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 412 kb)
10201_2018_539_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (202 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 201 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melody Cabrera Ospino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hisaya Kojima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomohiro Watanabe
    • 1
    • 4
  • Tomoya Iwata
    • 3
  • Manabu Fukui
    • 1
  1. 1.The Institute of Low Temperature ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Environmental ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapproJapan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of YamanashiKofuJapan
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial MicrobiologyMarburgGermany

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