, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 193–201 | Cite as

Linking summer conditions to CO2 undersaturation and CO2 influx in a subtropical coastal lake

  • Denise Tonetta
  • Maria Luiza S. Fontes
  • Mauricio Mello Petrucio
Research paper


In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pCO2 and air–water CO2 fluxes in the surface waters of a subtropical lake vary on two time scales (diel and seasonally) and that CO2 concentrations would decrease during the day and in summer. We estimated the variability of pCO2 and the air–water CO2 flux from pH-alkalinity in four 48-h periods that were representative of each subtropical season. There was high variability in pCO2 and the air–water gas flux over 48 h, but there was no clear pattern between day and night. CO2 concentrations showed a strong positive correlation with heterotrophic bacterial biomass and a negative correlation with dissolved organic carbon concentrations and water temperature. The lake was predominantly diel and seasonally CO2 supersaturated; the highest CO2 efflux was observed in the spring and a CO2 influx was observed in summer. Our hypothesis was confirmed; pCO2 was lowest in summer and during the daytime in spring and summer due to physical and biological conditions that favoured photosynthetic activities. These findings suggest that temporal shifts in the microbial community and meteorological variables, which are indirectly related to temperature, may be important drivers of CO2 concentrations in Peri Lake. In conclusion, pCO2 and the air–water CO2 flux vary temporally (diel and seasonally) in the littoral zone of this subtropical coastal lake, with shifts between CO2 influx and efflux throughout the sampling periods.


Bacterioplankton Gaseous exchanges Metabolism Heterotrophy 



We thank all of the reviewers whose suggestions greatly improved this manuscript. We also would like to thank Alex Pires De Oliveira Nuñer (LAPAD—UFSC) and Danilo Funke (FLORAM—Parque Municipal da Lagoa do Peri) for provision of lab and field equipment and the PPGECO—UFSC (Programa de Pós-graduação em Ecologia). This study was funded by CNPq—Brazil (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; Universal Process: 473572/2008-7) and CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior).

Supplementary material

10201_2015_460_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 kb)


  1. Briand JF, Leboulanger C, Humbert JF, Bernard C, Dufour P (2004) Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) invasion at mid-latitudes: selection, wide physiological tolerance, or global warming? J Phycol 40:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chonudomkul D, Yongmanitchal W, Theeragool G, Kawachi M, Kasal F, Kaya K, Watanabe M (2004) Morphology, genetic diversity, temperature tolerance and toxicity of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) strains from Thailand and Japan. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 48:345–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coffin RB, Connolly JP, Harris PS (1993) Availability of dissolved organic-carbon to bacterioplankton examined by oxygen utilization. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 101:9–22. doi: 10.3354/meps101009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cole JJ, Caraco NF (1998) Atmospheric exchange of carbon dioxide in a low-wind oligotrophic lake measured by the addition of SF6. Limnol Oceanogr 43:647–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cole JJ, Caraco NF, Kling GW, Kratz TK (1994) Carbon-dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lakes. Science 265:1568–1570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cole JJ, Prairie YT, Caraco NF, McDowell WH, Tranvik LJ, Striegl RG, Duarte CM, Kortelainen P, Downing JA, Middelburg JJ, Melack J (2007) Plumbing the global carbon cycle: integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Corlett RT (2013) Where are the subtropics? Biotropica 45:273–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Del Giorgio PA, Cole JJ, Cimbleris A (1997) Respiration rates in bacteria exceed phytoplankton production in unproductive aquatic systems. Nature 385:148–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duarte CM, Prairie YT (2005) Prevalence of heterotropy and atmospheric CO2 emissions from aquatic ecosystems. Ecosystems 8:862–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fan C, Hu W, Ford P, Chen Y, Qu W, Zhang L (2005) Carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon fluxes of air-water interface in Taihu Lake, China. Chin J Oceanol Limnol 23:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fontes MLS, Abreu P (2009) Spatio-temporal variation of bacterial assemblages in a shallow subtropical coastal lagoon in Southern Brazil. Microb Ecol 58:140–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fontes MLS, Tonetta D, Dalpaz L, Antônio RV, Petrucio MM (2013) Dynamics of planktonic prokaryotes and dissolved carbon in a subtropical coastal lake. Frontiers Microbiol. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00071 Google Scholar
  13. Fontes MLS, Marotta H, MacIntyre S, Petrucio MM (2015) Inter- and intra-annual variations of pCO2 and pO2 in a freshwater subtropical coastal lake. Inland Waters 5:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Golterman HL, Clymo RS, Ohnstad MAM (1978) Methods for physical and chemical analysis of freshwater. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  15. Hennemann MC, Petrucio MM (2011) Spatial and temporal dynamic of trophic relevant parameters in a subtropical coastal lagoon in Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 181:347–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jiang Y, Hu Y, Schirmer M (2013) Biogeochemical controls on daily cycling of hydrochemistry and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in a karst spring-fed pool. J Hydrol 478:157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Koroleff F (1976) Determination of nutrients. In: Grasshoff K (ed) Methods of sea water analysis. Verlag Chemie Weinhein, pp 117–181Google Scholar
  18. Kosten S, Roland F, Motta Marques DML, Van Nes EH, Mazzeo N, Sternberg LSL, Scheffer M, Cole JJ (2010) Climate-dependent CO2 emissions from lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 24:GB2007Google Scholar
  19. Lorenzen CJ (1967) Determination of chlorophyll and pheopigments: spectrophotometric equations. Limnol Oceanogr 12:343–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maberly SC, Barker PA, Stott AW, De Ville MM (2012) Catchment productivity controls CO2 emissions from lakes. Nature Climate Change 3:391–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacIntyre S, Jonsson A, Jansson M, Aberg J, Turney DE, Miller SD (2010) Buoyancy flux, turbulence, and the gas transfer coefficient in a stratified lake. Geophys Res Lett 37:L24604Google Scholar
  22. Mackereth FJH, Heron JE, Talling JF (1978) Water analysis: some revised methods for limnologists. Freshw Biol AssocGoogle Scholar
  23. Marotta H, Duarte CM, Sobek S, Enrich-Prast A (2009a) Large CO2 disequilibria in tropical lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 23:GB4022Google Scholar
  24. Marotta H, Paiva LP, Petrucio MM (2009b) Changes in thermal and oxygen stratification pattern coupled to CO2 outgassing persistence in two oligotrophic shallow lakes of the Atlantic tropical forest, southeast Brazil. Limnology 10:195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marotta H, Duarte CM, Pinho L, Enrich-Prast A (2010) Rainfall leads to increased pCO2 in Brazilian coastal lakes. Biogeosciences 7:1607–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marotta H, Ricci RMP, Sampaio PL, Melo PP, Enrich-Prast A (2012a) Variações em curto prazo do metabolismo e da pCO2 na lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas: elevado dinamismo em um ecossistema tropical urbano. Oecol Aust 16:391–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marotta H, Fontes MLS, Petrucio MM (2012b) Natural events of anoxia and low respiration index in oligotrophic lakes of the Atlantic Tropical Forest. Biogeosciences 9:4225–4244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Marotta H, Pinho L, Gudasz C, Bastviken D, Tranvik LJ, Enrich-Prast A (2014) Greenhouse gas production in low-latitude lake sediments responds strongly to warming. Nature Climate Change. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2222 Google Scholar
  29. Massana R, Gasol JM, Bjornsen PK, Blackburn N, Hagstrom A, Hietanen S, Hygum BH, Kuparinen J, Pedrós-Alió C (1997) Measurement of bacterial size via image analysis of epifluorescence preparations: description of an inexpensive system and solutions to some of the most common problems. Scientia Marina 61:397–407Google Scholar
  30. Nimick DA, Gammons CH, Parker SR (2011) Diel biogeochemical processes and their effect on the aqueous chemistry of streams: a review. Chem Geol 283:3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Norland S (1993) The relationship between biomass and volume of bacteria. In: Kemp PF, Sherr BF, Sherr EB, Cole JJ (eds) Handbook of methods in aquatic microbial ecology. Lewis pp 303–307Google Scholar
  32. Pacheco FS, Roland F, Downing JA (2013) Eutrophication reverses whole-lake carbon budgets. Inland Waters 4:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panzenbock M (2007) Effect of solar radiation on photosynthetic extracellular carbon release and its microbial utilization in alpine and Arctic lakes. Aquat Microb Ecol 48:155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Petrucio MM, Barbosa FAR (2004) Diel variations of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton production rates in four tropical lakes in the middle Rio Doce basin (southeastern Brazil). Hydrobiologia 513:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pinardi M, Rosseto M, Viaroli P, Bartoli M (2014) Daily and seasonal variability of CO2 saturation and evasion in a free flowing and in a dammed river reach. J Limnol 73:468–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Porter KG, Feig YS (1980) The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnol Oceanogr 25:943–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Raymond PA, Hartmann J, Lauerwald R et al (2013) Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters. Nature 503:355–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Read JS, Hamilton DP, Desai AR, Rose KC, MacIntyre S, Lenters JD, Smyth RL, Hanson PC, Cole JJ, Staehr PA, Rusak JA, Pierson DC, Brookes JD, Laas A, Wu CH (2012) Lake-size dependency of wind shear and convection as controls on gas exchange. Geophys Res Lett 39:L09405Google Scholar
  39. Sobek S, Tranvik L, Cole, JJ (2005) Temperature independence of carbon dioxide supersaturation in global lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 19:GB2003. doi: 10.1029/2004GB002264
  40. Sadro S, Nelson CE, Melack JM (2011) Linking diel patterns in community respiration to bacteriplankton in an oligotrophic high-elevation lake. Limnol Oceanogr 56:540–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sejr MK, Krause-Jensen D, Dalsgaard T, Ruiz-Halpern S, Duarte CM, Middelboe M, Glud RN, Bendtsen J, Balsby TJS, Rysgaard S (2014) Seasonal dynamics of autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton metabolism and PCO2 in a subarctic Greenland fjord. Limnol Oceanogr 59:1764–1778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Snoeyink VL, Jenkins D (1980) Water chemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Staehr PA, Sand-Jensen K (2007) Temporal dynamics and regulation of lake metabolism. Limnol Oceanogr 52:108–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Strickland JDH, Parsons TR (1960) A manual of seawater analysis. Bulletin 125:1–18Google Scholar
  45. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry: Chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Tans P (2013) National oceanic and atmospheric administration. Accessed 20 August 2013
  47. Tonetta D, Petrucio MM, Laudares-Silva R (2013) Temporal variation in phytoplankton community in a freshwater coastal lake of southern Brazil. Acta Limnol Bras 25:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tonetta D, Laudares-Silva R, Petrucio MM (2015) Planktonic production and respiration in a subtropical lake dominated by cyanobacteria. Braz J Biol (in press)Google Scholar
  49. Tranvik LJ, Downing JA, Cotner JB et al (2009) Lakes and reservoirs as regulators of carbon cycling and climate. Limnol Oceanogr 54:2298–2314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Trolle D, Staehr PA, Davidson TA, Bjerring R, Lauridsen TL, Søndergaard M, Jeppesen E (2012) Seasonal dynamics of CO2 flux across the surface of shallow temperate lakes. Ecosystems 15:336–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vachon D, Prairie YT (2013) The ecosystem size and shape dependence of gas transfer velocity versus wind speed relationships in lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70:1757–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vera C, Higgins W, Amador J et al (2006) Toward a unified view of the American monsoon systems. J Clim 19:4977–5000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wanninkhof R, Knox M (1996) Chemical enhancement of CO2 exchange in natural waters. Limnol Oceanogr 41:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weiss RF (1974) Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas. Mar Chem 2:203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xing YP, Xie P, Yang H, Ni LY, Wang YS, Rong KW (2005) Methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from a shallow hypereutrophic subtropical lake in China. Atmos Environ 39:5532–5540CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise Tonetta
    • 1
  • Maria Luiza S. Fontes
    • 2
  • Mauricio Mello Petrucio
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Freshwater EcologyFederal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Plant Functional Biology and Climate Change Cluster, School of the EnvironmentUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations