, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 179–194 | Cite as

Molecular phylogeographic analysis of East Asian cryptoperlan stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera, Peltoperlidae)

Research paper


Cryptoperlan stoneflies inhabit the headwaters or upper stream areas of rivers. A molecular phylogeographic study of cryptoperlans in the Japanese archipelago and on Taiwan Island has been conducted. Altogether the mtDNA 16S rRNA region of 71 individuals from 61 populations, the mtDNA COI region of 76 individuals from 41 populations, and the nDNA Histone 3 region of 56 individuals from 52 populations were sequenced and analyzed. The respective ML, NJ, MP and Bayesian dendrograms were proposed from the sequencing data for the 16S rRNA region (362-bp), the COI region (540-bp), and the Histone 3 region (322-bp), estimated using Yoraperla uenoi as an outgroup. Based upon those data and the resulting dendrograms, it has become clear that the cryptoperlan stoneflies of the Japanese archipelago and those of Taiwan Island comprise two major clades. The first of these two major clades consists of a number of OTUs [operational taxonomic units: Cryptoperla japonica (Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu Islands) + C. ishigakiensis (Ishigaki-jima Island) + Cryptoperla spp. (Okinawa-jima and Taiwan Islands)]. The other clade consists of the species Cryptoperla kawasawai inhabiting only Shikoku Island. Of particular note, C. kawasawai was observed to be significantly genetically differentiated from all other cryptoperlans examined. Yet, despite the fact that the specimens of C. japonica were taken from a very broad range of populations, their genetic diversity was relatively low, similar to that of C. kawasawai, which inhabits only a limited region within Shikoku Island. Furthermore, even the species C. kawasawai was revealed to be composed of two significantly genetically differentiated subclades. It is considered that this genetic structure among cryptoperlans largely reflects the geological history from the middle to upper Miocene Epoch (i.e., Tortonian stage) of the Japanese archipelago and Taiwan Island.


Stonefly Cryptoperla Biogeography Phylogeny Mitochondrial DNA Nuclear DNA 



We acknowledge the valuable suggestions and support of Drs. H. Maruyama and S. Hanada (Fukuoka City), K. Sekine (National Institute of Agricultural Sciences) and R.B. Kuranishi (Natural History Museum and Institute, Chiba). We express our thanks to Drs. N. Suzuki (Japan Women’s College of Physical Education), T. Tsutsumi (Fukushima University), G. Yoshinari (IDEA Consultants, Inc.), Mr/s S. Togashi (Murakami City), N. Katsuma (Ushiku City), and M. Ogitani, K. Miyairi, T. Suzuki, A. Kume, R. Saito, M. Takenaka, K. Kobayashi, S. Kato, and A. Sakano (Shinshu University), for their cooperation with field research and the collection of specimens. This study was supported by the River Fund in charge of the Foundation of River and Watershed Environment Management (FOREM), Japan (#22-1215-021), a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, #23657064, K.T.), and a research garant from the Institute of Mountain Science, Shinshu University. Specimens from Kamikochi National Park were collected with permits issued to Koji Tojo of Shinshu University (Ministry of the Environment 090804001, Forestry Agency Chushin Shinrin Kanrisho 682, and Agency for Cultural Affairs J600-1102-0006).


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental System Science, Graduate School of Science and TechnologyShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  4. 4.Institute of Mountain ScienceShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan

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