Advertisement

Limnology

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 45–53 | Cite as

Seasonal characteristics of surface water fulvic acids from Lake Biwa and Lake Tankai in Japan

  • Nobuhide FujitakeEmail author
  • Kumiko Tsuda
  • Suzuka Aso
  • Hiroki Kodama
  • Masahiro Maruo
  • Koyo Yonebayashi
Research paper

Abstract

Seasonal characteristics of surface water fulvic acids (FAs) isolated from Japanese clear-water lakes were investigated. Qualitative changes in Lake Biwa and Lake Tankai FAs were determined and compared. Although the relative molecular weights determined by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography did not change remarkably, the elemental compositions, \( E_{600}^{1\% } \) values and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral properties varied with the season. Both the H/C and N/C ratios for Lake Biwa FAs tended to be higher than those for Lake Tankai FAs, but O/C ratios were lower and decreased from spring to winter. The \( E_{600}^{1\% } \) values suggested that Lake Biwa FAs contained lower levels of unsaturated structures than Lake Tankai FAs, and the amounts of these structures increased in winter. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra indicated that Lake Biwa FAs are richer in saturated aliphatic chains, especially in spring. Overall, Lake Biwa FAs exhibited clearer seasonal changes in these characteristics than Lake Tankai FAs, suggesting that the seasonal variation may depend on changes in aquatic microbial activities.

Keywords

Fulvic acid (FA) Clear water Aliphatic structure Seasonal change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Part of this work was supported by a grant-in-aid for scientific research (B-16380049, 2004–2007), and partially supported by the fund of the Department of Lake Biwa Environment, Shiga Prefecture, Japan.

References

  1. Amon RMW, Benner R (1996) Bacterial utilization of different size classes of dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 41:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoki S, Fuse Y, Yamada E (2004) Determination of humic substances and other dissolved organic matter and their effects in the increase of COD in Lake Biwa. Anal Sci 20:159–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asakawa D, Mochizuki H, Yanagi Y, Fujitake N (2007) Characterization of hydrophobic acid fractions in water-soluble organic matter in dystric cambisol and in a stream in a small forested watershed: seasonal and vertical variations in chemical properties. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:551–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asakawa D, Kiyota T, Yanagi Y, Fujitake N (2008) Optimization of conditions for high-performance size-exclusion chromatography of different soil humic acids. Anal Sci 24:607–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chin YP, Aiken G, O’Loughlin E (1994) Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 28:1853–1858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fujitake N, Kawahigashi M (1999) 13C NMR spectra and elemental composition of fractions with different particle sizes from an andosol humic acid. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 45:359–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fujitake N, Kodama H, Nagao S, Tsuda K, Yonebayashi K (2009) Chemical properties of aquatic fulvic acids from Lake Biwa, a clear water system in Japan. Humic Subst Res 5/6:45–53Google Scholar
  8. Hatcher PG, Schnizer M, Dennis LW, Maciel GE (1981) Aromaticity of humic substances in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:1089–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hayakawa K (2004) Seasonal variations and dynamics of dissolved carbohydrates in Lake Biwa. Org Geochem 35:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Imai A, Fukushima T, Murashige K, Inoue T, Ishibashi T (1998) Fractionation of dissolved organic matters in Lake Biwa and the inflowing river (in Japanese). Jpn J Limnol 59:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. International Lake Environment Committee (ILEC) (1993) Data book of world lake environment. A survey of the state of world lakes. 1. Asia and Oceania. Otsu Shigyo Photo Printing, OtsuGoogle Scholar
  12. Japanese Meteorological Agency (2010) Weather statistical information of Hikone by year (in Japanese). Japanese Meteorological Agency, Tokyo. http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/
  13. Kawahigashi M, Fujitake N, Takahashi T (1996) Structural information obtained from spectral analysis (UV–VIS, IR, 1H NMR) of particle size fractions in two humic acids. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 42:355–360Google Scholar
  14. Kumada K, Sato O, Ohsumi Y, Ohta S (1967) Humic composition of mountain soils in central Japan with special reference to the distribution of P type humic acid. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:151–158Google Scholar
  15. Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute (2010) Overview of Lake Biwa (in Japanese). Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute, Otsu. http://www.lberi.jp/root/jp/
  16. Lu XQ, Hanna JV, Johnson WD (2000) Source indicator of humic substances: an elemental compositions, solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR and Py-GC/MS study. Appl Geochem 15:1019–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malcolm RL (1985) Geochemistry of stream fulvic and humic substances. In: Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL, MacCarthy P (eds) Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water: geochemistry, isolation and characterization. Wiley, New York, pp 181–209Google Scholar
  18. Maurince PA, Namjesnik-Dejanovic K (1999) Aggregate structures of sorbed humic substances observed in aqueous solution. Environ Sci Technol 33:1538–1541Google Scholar
  19. McKnight DM, Andrews ED, Spaulding SA, Aiken GR (1994) Aquatic fulvic acids in algal-rich Antarctic ponds. Limnol Oceanogr 39:1972–1979Google Scholar
  20. Mostofa KMG, Yoshioka T, Konohira E, Tanoue E, Hayakawa K, Takahashi M (2005) Three-dimensional fluorescence as a tool for investigating the dynamics of dissolved organic matter in the Lake Biwa watershed. Limnology 6:101–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peuravuori J, Monterio A, Eglite L, Pihlaja K (2005) Comparative study for separation of aquatic humic-type organic constituents by DAX-8, PVP and DEAE sorbing solids and tangential ultrafiltration: elemental composition, size-exclusion chromatography, UV-vis and FT-IR. Talanta 65:408–422Google Scholar
  22. SCOR/UNESCO Working Group 17 (1966) Determination of photosynthetic pigments in sea water. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. Steelink C (1985) Implications of elemental characteristics of humic substances. In: Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL, MacCarthy P (eds) Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water: geochemistry, isolation and characterization. Wiley, New York, pp 457–476Google Scholar
  24. Steinberg C, Muenster U (1985) Geochemistry and ecological role of humic substances in lakewater. In: Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL, MacCarthy P (eds) Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water: geochemistry, isolation and characterization. Wiley, New York, pp 105–145Google Scholar
  25. Sugiyama Y, Anegawa A, Inokuchi H, Kumagai T (2005) Distribution of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved fulvic acid in mesotrophic Lake Biwa, Japan. Limnology 6:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Swift RS (1996) Organic matter characterization. In: Spark DL (ed) Methods of soil analysis: part 3, chemical methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 1011–1069Google Scholar
  27. Tabuchi T, Takamura N, Kuroda H (2004) Diversity of irrigation ponds relating to the type of water resources and their water quality (research report). National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (in Japanese), vol 183, pp 47–60Google Scholar
  28. Tankai-tochikairyoku (1964) Fifty years of land consolidation of Lake Tankai (Tankai-kohchiseiri-gozyunen)Google Scholar
  29. Tezuka Y (1992) Recent trend in the lake eutrophication of the North Basin of Lake Biwa. Jpn J Limnol 53:139–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Thurman EM (1985) Aquatic humic substances. In: Organic geochemistry of natural waters. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 273–362Google Scholar
  31. Thurman EM, Malcolm RL (1981) Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 15:463–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tsuda K, Mori H, Asakawa D, Yanagi Y, Kodama H, Nagao S, Yonebayashi K, Fujitake N (2010) Characterization and grouping of aquatic fulvic acids isolated from clear-water rivers and lakes in Japan. Water Res 44:3837–3846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tsutsuki K, Kuwatsuka S (1979) Chemical studies on soil humic acids. VII: pH-dependent nature of the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of humic acids. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 25:373–384Google Scholar
  34. Urabe J, Sekino T, Nozaki K, Tsuji A, Yoshimizu C, Kagami M, Koitabashi T, Miyazaki T, Nakanishi M (1999) Light, nutrients and primary productivity in Lake Biwa: an evaluation of the current ecosystem situation. Ecol Res 14:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watanabe A, Fujitake N (2008) Comparability of composition of carbon functional groups in humic acids between inverse-gated decoupling and cross polarization/magnetic resonance techniques. Anal Chim Acta 618:110–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wershaw RL (1985) Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining functionality in humic substances. In: Aiken GR, McKnight DM, Wershaw RL, MacCarthy P (eds) Humic substances in soil, sediment, and water, geochemistry, isolation and characterization. Wiley, New York, pp 561–582Google Scholar
  37. Wilson MA (1980) Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the study of the structure of soil organic matter. J Soil Sci 32:167–186Google Scholar
  38. Yonebayashi K, Hattori T (1988) Chemical and biological studies on environmental humic acids. I. Composition of elemental and functional groups of humic acids. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 24:571–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yonebayashi K, Hattori T (1989) Chemical and biological studies on environmental humic acids. II. 1H-NMR and IR spectra of humic acids. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 35:383–392Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Limnology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobuhide Fujitake
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kumiko Tsuda
    • 2
  • Suzuka Aso
    • 1
  • Hiroki Kodama
    • 3
  • Masahiro Maruo
    • 4
  • Koyo Yonebayashi
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kobe UniversityKobeJapan
  3. 3.Analytical Research Center for Experimental Science, Saga UniversitySagaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Environmental ScienceThe University of Shiga PrefectureHikoneJapan
  5. 5.Department of Environmental ScienceIshikawa Prefectural UniversityNonoichiJapan

Personalised recommendations