Skip to main content

Table 4 Parameter estimates obtained from a spatial ordered probit model for Slovakia in 1995, 2001 and 2010

From: Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry

Number of firms Pharmacies Physicians Dentists
1995 2001 2010 1995 2001 2010 1995 2001 2010
Population (log) (\(\alpha\)) 1.581\(^{***}\) (0.0615) 1.5542\(^{***}\)(0.0669) 1.4862\(^{***}\) (0.0569) 1.6798\(^{***}\)(0.0541) 1.8734\(^{***}\) (0.0490) 1.6971\(^{***}\)(0.0459) 1.6628\(^{***}\) (0.059) 1.8337\(^{***}\) (0.0537) 1.7436\(^{***}\) (0.0528)
Wages − 0.0108\(^{**}\) (0.0045) 0.0020 (0.0012) 0.0007 (0.0005) − 0.0028 (0.0037) 0.0006 (0.0011) 0.0011\(^{***}\) (0.0004) − 0.0026 (0.004) 0.0017 (0.0010) 0.0012\(^{**}\) (0.0005)
Unemployment (%) 0.3269 (1.3849) − 0.7999 (0.8809) 1.0785 (0.8725) 0.2123 (1.1329) 0.8321 (0.6665) 1.0886 (0.6789) 0.4579 (1.244) 0.0676 (0.7297) 1.7417\(^{**}\) (0.8293)
Young (%) − 2.9066\(^{*}\) (1.7566) − 6.7621\(^{***}\) (1.7512) − 4.9087\(^{***}\) (1.4813) − 2.2861 (1.4038) − 6.3470\(^{***}\) (1.1880) − 4.7339\(^{***}\) (0.9195) − 5.6278\(^{***}\) (1.653) − 5.9705\(^{***}\) (1.3114) − 5.2827\(^{***}\) (1.2721)
Elderly (%) − 1.7934 (1.6082) − 1.9326 (1.6822) 2.5611\(^{*}\) (1.3706) − 0.5873 (1.2565) − 2.397193\(^{*}\) (1.1771) 1.1708 (0.9842) − 3.2238\(^{**}\) (1.4919) − 2.8526\(^{*}\) (1.3183) − 0.0058 (1.3056)
\(\theta _1\) 9.7296\(^{***}\) (1.3969) 12.0160\(^{***}\) (1.0364) 12.5321\(^{***}\) (0.7946) 11.8553\(^{***}\) (1.1638) 12.8529\(^{***}\) (0.7783) 12.887\(^{***}\) (0.5902) 10.8794\(^{***}\) (1.2966) 13.1651\(^{***}\) (0.8388) 13.9254\(^{***}\) (0.735)
\(\theta _2\) 11.3149\(^{***}\)(1.4001) 13.6432\(^{***}\) (1.0553) 13.6673\(^{***}\) (0.802) 12.6037\(^{***}\) (1.1645) 13.5408\(^{***}\) (0.78257) 13.6654\(^{***}\) (0.5969) 12.3197\(^{***}\) (1.2994) 14.6949\(^{***}\) (0.8463) 15.0883\(^{***}\) (0.741)
\(\theta _3\) 12.522\(^{***}\) (1.4065) 14.5257\(^{***}\) (1.0714) 14.3044\(^{***}\) (0.8101) 13.4512\(^{***}\) (1.1665) 14.3558\(^{***}\) (0.7860) 14.3308\(^{***}\) (0.6044) 13.1256\(^{***}\) (1.3023) 15.4816\(^{***}\) (0.8531) 15.7086\(^{***}\) (0.7511)
\(\theta _4\) 12.7734\(^{***}\) (1.4076) 15.1495\(^{***}\) (1.0791) 14.7668\(^{***}\) (0.8208) 14.0205\(^{***}\) (1.1698) 14.9443\(^{***}\) (0.7914) 14.7624\(^{***}\) (0.6138) 13.5864\(^{***}\) (1.3019) 15.9618\(^{***}\) (0.8535) 16.1909\(^{***}\) (0.7587)
\(\theta _5\) 13.537\(^{***}\) (1.4102) 15.5600\(^{***}\) (1.0884) 15.0626\(^{***}\) (0.8300) 14.3118\(^{***}\) (1.1726) 15.3865\(^{***}\) (0.7956) 15.1595\(^{***}\) (0.6222) 13.8629\(^{***}\) (1.3048) 16.4208\(^{***}\) (0.8625) 16.5189\(^{***}\) (0.7661)
\(\theta _6\) 13.8898\(^{***}\) (1.412) 16.1496\(^{***}\) (1.1033) 15.3487\(^{***}\) (0.8369) 14.6986\(^{***}\) (1.1757) 15.6796\(^{***}\) (0.8014) 15.4091\(^{***}\) (0.6279) 14.1789\(^{***}\) (1.3092) 16.7411\(^{***}\) (0.8659) 16.9791\(^{***}\) (0.7756)
\(\theta _7\)   16.4266\(^{***}\) (1.1080) 15.6829\(^{***}\) (0.8464) 15.103\(^{***}\) (1.1804) 15.9133\(^{***}\) (0.8024) 15.6599\(^{***}\) (0.6322) 14.5101\(^{***}\) (1.3113) 17.0764\(^{***}\) (0.8710) 17.3302\(^{***}\) (0.7857)
\(\rho\) − 0.3573\(^{***}\) (0.0631) − 0.3389\(^{***}\) (0.0632) − 0.161\(^{**}\) (0.0625) − 0.4082\(^{***}\) (0.0571) − 0.4600\(^{***}\) (0.0423) − 0.2827\(^{***}\) (0.0439) − 0.3623\(^{***}\) (0.0612) − 0.3838\(^{***}\) (0.0468) − 0.2747\(^{***}\) (0.0501)
Observations 2843 2897 2926 2843 2897 2926 2843 2897 2926
  1. All markets with more than seven firms are pooled in one category. Standard errors are in parenthesis
  2. \(^{***}\), \(^{**}\), and \(^{*}\) indicates that parameters are significantly different from zero at the 1, 5, and 10% level, respectively