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Table 19 Parameter estimates obtained from a sample of rural areas

From: Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry

Number of firms Pharmacies Physicians Dentists
1995 2001 2010 1995 2001 2010 1995 2001 2010
Population (log) (\(\alpha\)) 1.5292\(^{***}\) (0.0697) 1.3311\(^{***}\) (0.0699) 1.3452\(^{***}\) (0.0597) 1.5984\(^{***}\) (0.0575) 1.8566\(^{***}\) (0.0594) 1.6658\(^{***}\) (0.0501) 1.5791\(^{***}\) (0.0652) 1.8148\(^{***}\) (0.0663) 1.6371\(^{***}\) (0.0600)
Wages − 0.0088\(^{**}\) (0.0041) 0.0007 (0.0014) − 0.0004 (0.0006) − 0.0015 (0.0033) − 0.0002 (0.0010) 0.0005 (0.0004) − 0.0004 (0.0037) 0.0000 (0.0012) 0.0004 (0.0005)
Unemployment (%) 0.0130 (0.0117) 0.0017 (0.0074) 0.0139\(^{*}\) (0.0080) 0.0210\(^{**}\) (0.0094) 0.0238\(^{***}\) (0.0055) 0.0247\(^{***}\) (0.0059) 0.0235\(^{**}\) (0.0105) 0.0166\(^{***}\) (0.0060) 0.0293\(^{***}\) (0.0072)
Young (%) − 2.1362 (1.6659) − 6.8591\(^{***}\) (1.7019) − 6.1095\(^{***}\) (1.6221) − 1.8447 (1.3235) − 6.5756\(^{***}\) (1.1482) − 4.9537\(^{***}\) (0.9132) − 4.5149\(^{***}\) (1.5459) − 6.1728\(^{***}\) (1.2817) − 5.3199\(^{***}\) (1.2992)
Elderly (%) − 1.6393 (1.5198) − 3.9007\(^{**}\) (1.6796) 1.0596 (1.5369) − 0.5942 (1.1946) − 3.2130\(^{***}\) (1.1551) 0.9848 (0.9909) − 2.9983\(^{**}\) (1.3947) − 3.6377\(^{***}\) (1.3264) − 0.4611 (1.3641)
\(\theta _1\) 9.4592\(^{***}\) (1.3517) 8.9922\(^{***}\) (1.1003) 9.9761\(^{***}\) (0.9076) 11.3779\(^{***}\) (1.0994) 12.0028\(^{***}\) (0.8011) 12.1211\(^{***}\) (0.6369) 10.7081\(^{***}\) (1.2434) 11.9535\(^{***}\) (0.9038) 12.2179\(^{***}\) (0.8146)
\(\theta _2\) 11.0623\(^{***}\) (1.3659) 10.5462\(^{***}\) (1.1173) 11.0927\(^{***}\) (0.9192) 12.1224\(^{***}\) (1.1031) 12.6996\(^{***}\) (0.8066) 12.9034\(^{***}\) (0.6427) 12.1470\(^{***}\) (1.2532) 13.5322\(^{***}\) (0.9200) 13.3979\(^{***}\) (0.8266)
\(\theta _3\) 12.5366\(^{***}\) (1.3851) 11.5389\(^{***}\) (1.1315) 11.7420\(^{***}\) (0.9281) 12.9535\(^{***}\) (1.1077) 13.5271\(^{***}\) (0.8134) 13.5911\(^{***}\) (0.6497) 12.9361\(^{***}\) (1.2622) 14.3575\(^{***}\) (0.9301) 14.0369\(^{***}\) (0.8362)
\(\theta _4\) 12.8076\(^{***}\) (1.3913) 12.4010\(^{***}\) (1.1628) 12.4040\(^{***}\) (0.9414) 13.4882\(^{***}\) (1.1128) 14.1198\(^{***}\) (0.8183) 14.0399\(^{***}\) (0.6558) 13.3971\(^{***}\) (1.2687) 14.8518\(^{***}\) (0.9370) 14.5301\(^{***}\) (0.8464)
\(\theta _5\) 13.2525\(^{***}\) (1.4046)   12.8682\(^{***}\) (0.9553) 13.7733\(^{***}\) (1.1167) 14.5594\(^{***}\) (0.8234) 14.4434\(^{***}\) (0.6619) 13.7292\(^{***}\) (1.2736) 15.3122\(^{***}\) (0.9451) 14.8930\(^{***}\) (0.8543)
\(\theta _6\) 13.8599\(^{***}\) (1.4452)   13.0758\(^{***}\) (0.9642) 14.1467\(^{***}\) (1.1224) 14.8370\(^{***}\) (0.8275) 14.6867\(^{***}\) (0.6660) 14.0704\(^{***}\) (1.2790) 15.7048\(^{***}\) (0.9525) 15.3560\(^{***}\) (0.8653)
\(\theta _7\)    13.8986\(^{***}\) (1.0352) 14.5345\(^{***}\) (1.1283) 15.0485\(^{***}\) (0.8308) 14.9144\(^{***}\) (0.6704) 14.5103\(^{***}\) (1.2869) 16.2177\(^{***}\) (0.9606) 15.8401\(^{***}\) (0.8756)
Observations 2787 2817 2829 2787 2817 2829 2787 2817 2829
  1. All markets with more than seven firms are pooled in one category. Standard errors are in parenthesis
  2. \(^{***}\), \(^{**}\), and \(^{*}\) indicates that parameters are significantly different from zero at the 1, 5, and 10% level, respectively
  3. Fewer than seven thresholds are estimated if no observations of this market structure are available