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Table 1 Overview of regulatory reforms in the Slovak healthcare sector.

From: Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry

1990 Re-introduction of market principles and fragmentation of the system
  Re-establishment of social health insurance
1993 Establishment of the National Health Insurance Fund
1995 Multiple health insurance funds allowed
  General Health Insurance Fund and 12 other insurance funds established
  Weak budget constraints and increasing debt in the system
  Most pharmacies and ambulatory physicians went into private practice
1998 Slovak Chamber of Pharmacists has the right to approve the establishment of new pharmacies
  Entry of pharmacies was not restricted by population or location explicitly
  From centrally planned system to unsustainably fragmented system
1999 First stabilization measures aimed partially at the problems in the healthcare system
2000 Slovak Chamber of Pharmacists introduced demographic and location restrictions for pharmacies
2001 Decline in number of doctors due to restructuring of hospitals and migration abroad
  Price regulation by the Ministry of Finance
2003 Key health care reforms
  Stabilization measures - user fees
  Restructuring of the debt in the system
2004 Establishment of Health Care Surveillance Authority (Act No 581/2004 Coll.)
  Health insurance companies transformed to joint stock companies
  Reform aimed at transparent entry and decrease of entry barriers
  Abolition of entry restrictions in pharmacy markets
  Liberalised ownership of pharmacies
  Introduction of selective contracting
  Hard budgetary constraints
2007 Refinements of the reforms
  Some of the pro-market reforms were discarded by the new government
  User fees were scaled down
  Selective contracting was restricted
  Key reform acts remained unchanged