Calcaneal fracture is the most common of the tarsal fractures and represents 1%–2% of all fractures. The fractures may be divided into extra-articular (not affecting the joint) and intra-articular (involving the talo-calcaneal and calcaneal cuboid joints) types. The management of heel fractures includes nonoperative and operative treatments, but no clear consensus has been reached. The choice of operative treatment is still controversial with many factors influencing the final clinical outcome. Many studies have assessed the outcome of treatment of calcaneal fractures, but there is a general disagreement on their management. The objective of this study was to collect and evaluate the scientific evidence reported in the literature supporting the different treatments for calcaneal fractures.