Effects of hydroelectric turbine noise on the behaviour of Leporinus taeniatus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) in captivity
Hydroelectric power plants (HPP) constitute one of the main forms of energy generation in the world, and its operation produces underwater noise through generators and turbines, which can potentially impact the aquatic fauna. Anthropogenic noise is a stressful factor and can affect behaviour, physiology and acoustic communication of many animal species. However, the noise impact produced by HPP on fishes has not been studied yet. In this research we investigated the noise impact of hydroelectric turbines on the behaviour of Leporinus taeniatus held captive in Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that noise could disturb fishes’ behaviour by affecting school organization, fish position in the tank and the speed of swimming. Two groups of 10 individuals were exposed to 30 sessions of noise played at an intensity of 100 dB re 1 µPa, during 40 s on days 0, 7 and 14. Behavioural data were obtained before, during, and after noise exposure. Results showed that the fish swam significantly faster, moving to the bottom and swimming in depolarised shoals during noise exposure in both groups. Temporal analysis showed that during noise exposure fish swam faster, were less stationary and used the bottom of the tanks more throughout sampling period. These data provide evidence that fish behaviour can be affected by the aversive stimulus of the noise of a hydroelectric turbine in operation. It also suggests that sound pollution issues should be taken into consideration when regulating the use of natural areas for HPP.
KeywordsFish behaviour Hydroelectric impact Anthropogenic noise Characins Brazil São Francisco River basin
We would like to thank the staff of the São Francisco River Basin Aquarium of the Zoobotanical Foundation of Belo Horizonte for allowing us to develop this research. We also thank CNPq, FAPEMIG and CAPES (post-doctoral grant) for financial support.
This study was funded by FAPEMIG (Grant number BPD-00567-14) and CAPES (Grant number PNPD 20131384).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals and informed consent
This project was approved by the Ethical Committee from Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, Brazil (Process number: P120).
- Barbosa JM, Soares EC (2009) Perfil da ictiofauna da bacia do São Francisco: estudo preliminar. Rev Bras Eng Pesca 4:155–172Google Scholar
- Cachat J, Stewart A, Grossman L, Gaikwad S, Kadri F, Chung KM, Wu N, Wong K, Roy S, Suciu C, Goodspeed J, Elegante M, Bartels B, Elkhayat S, Tien D, Tan J, Denmark A, Gilder T, Kyzar E, DiLeo J, Frank K, Chang K, Utterback E, Hart P, Kalueff AV (2010) Measuring behavioral and endocrine responses to novelty stress in adult zebrafish. Nat Protoc 5:1786–1799CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Domjan M (2010) The principles of learning and behaviour. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, BelmontGoogle Scholar
- Dugan PJ, Barlow C, Agostinho AA, Baran E, Cada GF, Chen D, Cowx IG, Ferguson JW, Jutagate T, Mallen-Cooper M, Marmulla G, Nestler J, Petrere M, Welcomme RL, Winemiller KO (2010) Fish migration, dams, and loss of ecosystem services in the Mekong basin. Ambio 39:344–348CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Godinho HP, Godinho AL (2003) Águas, peixes e pescadores do São Francisco das Minas Gerais. PUC Minas, Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar
- Hawkins AD, Popper AN (2017) A sound approach to assessing the impact of underwater noise on marine fishes and invertebrates. J Mar Sci 74:635–651Google Scholar
- Herbert-Read JE, Kremer L, Bruintjes R, Radford AN, Ioannou CC (2017) Anthropogenic noise pollution from pile-driving disrupts the structure and dynamics of fish shoals. Proc R Soc B 284:1627Google Scholar
- Lehner PN (1998) Handbook of ethological methods. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Mazarini JAF (2013) Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para elaboração de modelos de predição dos níveis de ruído do campo acústico de usinas hidrelétricas. Master Dissertation, UNESP, Ilha Solteira p 113Google Scholar
- Reis E, Kullander SO, Ferraris CJ Jr (2003) Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS, Porto AlegreGoogle Scholar