Skip to main content

A review on calcium-rich industrial wastes: a sustainable source of raw materials in India for civil infrastructure—opportunities and challenges to bond circular economy


This study provides an overview of calcium rich industrial wastes usage in construction materials, their properties and different applications through marble waste and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. Large quantities of industrial wastes are stockpiled and haphazardly disposed in increasing amounts causing serious environmental concerns. The extensive use of marble and gypsum products is increasing in construction industry and limited amount of natural sources are available, which requires alternative sources of calcium-rich raw materials. The aim of this study is to explore the recycling opportunities for calcium-rich industrial wastes which have good technical properties and can be used as raw materials for civil infrastructure. Utilization of these industrial wastes, leads to increase economical efficiency and it takes a positive step towards the conservation of natural materials, resource recovery and protecting the environment. The findings of the previous work done by different researchers affirm the need of further detailed scientific research for the effective utilization of marble waste and FGD gypsum. As per the present study, approximately 22 million tons of marble waste and 20 million tons of FGD gypsum are expected to be generated by the year 2040 in India. The results of physico-chemical analysis indicated that marble waste and FGD gypsum has potential as raw material for civil infrastructure. This research review focuses on the transformation of marble waste and FGD gypsum towards sustainable production of construction materials, work done so far, current best practices of its utilization and future possibilities.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Availability of data and material

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.


  1. 1.

    Zabidi H, Termizi M, Aliman S, Ariffin KS, Khalil NL (2016) Geological structure and geomorphological aspects in karstified susceptibility mapping of limestone formations. Procedia Chem 19:659–665

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bugini R, Tabasso ML, Realini M (2000) Rate of formation of black crusts on marble. A case study. J Cult Herit 1(2):111–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Rana A, Kalla P, Csetenyi LJ (2015) Sustainable use of marble slurry in concrete. J Clean Prod 94:304–311

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kore SD, Vyas AK, Kabeer SA (2019) A brief review on sustainable utilisation of marble waste in concrete. Int J Sustain Eng 13:1–16

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Hlubocký L, Prošek Z (2017) Mechanical properties of cement composite with material based on waste marble powder and crushed limestone. Adv Mater Res 1144:9–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Pappu A, Chaturvedi R, Tyagi P, Khan A, Peters E (2019) Conversion of marble waste into a value added composite materials for civil infrastructure. Productivity 60:239–249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Pappu A, Thakur VK, Patidar R, Asolekar SR, Saxena M (2019) Recycling marble wastes and jarosite wastes into sustainable hybrid composite materials and validation through response surface methodology. J Clean Prod 240:118249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Pappu A, Chaturvedi R, Tyagi P (2020) Sustainable approach towards utilizing Makrana marble waste for making water resistant green composite materials. SN Appl Sci 2(3):347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Kore SD, Vyas AK (2016) Impact of marble waste as coarse aggregate on properties of lean cement concrete. Case Stud Constr Mater 4:85–92

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

  11. 11.

    Awad AH, El-gamasy R, Abd-El-Wahab AA, Hazem-Abdellatif M (2019) Mechanical behavior of PP reinforced with marble dust. Constr Build Mater 228:116766

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Asokan-Pappu MSSRA (2011) Waste to wealth-cross sector waste recycling opportunity and challenges. Can J Environ Constr Civ Eng 2(3):14–23

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Chang Z, Long G, Zhou JL, Ma C (2020) Valorization of sewage sludge in the fabrication of construction and building materials: a review. Resourc Conserv Recycl 154:104606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Karoshi G, Kolar P, Shah SB, Gilleskie G (2020) Valorization of eggshell waste into supported copper catalysts for partial oxidation of methane. Int J Environ Res 14(1):61–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tony MA, Lin L-S (2021) Iron coated-sand from acid mine drainage waste for being a catalytic oxidant towards municipal wastewater remediation. Int J Environ Res 15(1):191–201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ahmed K (2013) Hybrid composites prepared from Industrial waste: mechanical and swelling behavior. J Adv Res 6:225–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Pappu A, Saxena M, Asolekar S (2007) Solid wastes generation in india and their recycling potential in building materials. Build Environ 42:2311–2320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Leong YW, Abu-Bakar MB, Ishak ZAM, Ariffin A, Pukanszky B (2004) Comparison of the mechanical properties and interfacial interactions between talc, kaolin, and calcium carbonate filled polypropylene composites. J Appl Polym Sci 91(5):3315–3326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Boonruksa P, Bello D, Zhang J, Isaacs JA, Mead JL, Woskie SR (2017) Exposures to nanoparticles and fibers during injection molding and recycling of carbon nanotube reinforced polycarbonate composites. J Eposure Sci Environ Epidemiol 27(4):379–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Go India, Indian Minerals Yearbook 2018 (Part—III: mineral reviews), minor minerals, 30.12 gypsum and Selenite, in: I.B.o.M. Ministry of Mines (Ed.) February 2019

  21. 21.

    Dragomir A-M, Lisnic R, Prisecaru T, Prisecaru MM, Vijan CA, Nastac DC (2017) Study on synthetic gypsum obtained from wet flue gas desulphurisation in thermal power plants. Revista Romana de Materiale-Roman J Mater 47(4):551–556

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Gracioli B, Varela M, Rubert S, Angulski da Luz C, Pereira Filho J, Hooton D (2015) Valorization of phosphogypsum in supersulfated cement (SSC): a contribution for binders free of CO2 emissions, 16th NOCMAT

  23. 23.

    Smadi MM, Haddad RH, Akour AM (1999) Potential use of phosphogypsum in concrete. Cem Concr Res 29(9):1419–1425

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Dvorkin L, Lushnikova N, Sonebi M (2012) Application areas of phosphogypsum in production of mineral binders and composites based on them: a review of research results. MATEC Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2018, 01012

  25. 25.

    Chander S (2016) Innovations in fertiliser production. Frank Notes, Indian Journal of Fertilisers, June 2016, pp 12–13

  26. 26.,

  27. 27.

  28. 28.

  29. 29.

  30. 30.

  31. 31.

    G.o.I. Central Electricity Authority, Standard Technical Specification for Retrofit of Wet Limestone based Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)System in a Typical 2 × 500 MW Thermal Power Plant, New Delhi, December 2017

  32. 32.

    Sunita-Narain VT (2020) Flue gas desulphurization: limestone availability and gypsum use. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bakshi P, Pappu A, Patidar R, Gupta MK, Thakur VK (2020) Transforming marble waste into high-performance, water-resistant, and thermally insulative hybrid polymer composites for environmental sustainability. Polymers 12(8):1781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Reddy NG, Chandra S, Rao BH (2016) Assessment of industrial wastes as a road construction material: a review. In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Recent Innovations in Engineering and Technology (ICREIAT-2016), pp 22–23

  35. 35.

    Thakur AK, Pappu A, Thakur VK (2018) Resource efficiency impact on marble waste recycling towards sustainable green construction materials. Curr Opin Green Sustain Chem 13:91–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Kumar S, Bhattacharyya B, Gupta VK (2014) Present and future energy scenario in India. J Inst Eng India Ser B 95(3):247–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

  38. 38.

    Lalwani M, Singh M (2010) Conventional and renewable energy scenario of India: present and future. Can J Electr Electron Eng 1(6):122–140

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Ngernchuklin P, Yongpraderm N, Boonruang A, Kanchanasutha S, Laoauyporn P, Busabok C (2018) Upgrading of waste gypsum for building materials. Key Eng Mater 766:211–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Bhawan P, Nagar EA (2014) Guidelines for management, handling, utilisation and disposal of phosphogypsum generated from phosphoric acid plants. Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Turner DA, Williams ID, Kemp S (2015) Greenhouse gas emission factors for recycling of source-segregated waste materials. Resour Conserv Recycl 105:186–197

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Johansson N, Forsgren C (2020) Is this the end of end-of-waste? Uncovering the space between waste and products. Resourc Conserv Recyc 155:104656

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Chiou I-J, Chen C-H (2020) Municipal solid waste landfill age and refuse-derived fuel. Waste Manag Res 0734242X20961832

  44. 44.

    Siva SRT, Rupesh KD, Sudarsana RH (2010) A study on strength characteristics of phosphogvpsum concrete

  45. 45.

    Nanjegowda VH, Biligiri KP (2020) Recyclability of rubber in asphalt roadway systems: A review of applied research and advancement in technology. Resourc Conserv Recyc 155:104655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Mohajerani A, Burnett L, Smith JV, Markovski S, Rodwell G, Rahman MT, Kurmus H, Mirzababaei M, Arulrajah A, Horpibulsuk S, Maghool F (2020) Recycling waste rubber tyres in construction materials and associated environmental considerations: a review. Resourc Conserv Recyc 155:104679

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Scrivener K, Martirena F, Bishnoi S, Maity S (2018) Calcined clay limestone cements (LC3). Cem Concr Res 114:49–56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Zhuang S, Wang Q (2021) Inhibition mechanisms of steel slag on the early-age hydration of cement. Cem Concr Res 140:106283

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Luo Z, Li W, Wang K, Castel A, Shah SP (2021) Comparison on the properties of ITZs in fly ash-based geopolymer and Portland cement concretes with equivalent flowability. Cem Concr Res 143:106392

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Kristof E, Juhasz A (1993) The effect of intensive grinding on the crystal structure of dolomite. Powder Technol 75(2):145–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Ross NL, Reeder RJ (1992) High-pressure structural study of dolomite and ankerite. Am Miner 77(3–4):412–421

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Miser DE, Swinnea JS, Steinfink H (1987) TEM observations and X-ray crystal-structure refinement of a twinned dolomite with a modulated microstructure. Am Miner 72(1–2):188–193

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Hass M, Sutherland GBBM (1956) The infra-red spectrum and crystal structure of gypsum. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Sci 236(1207):427–445

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Nazzareni S, Comodi P, Bindi L, Dubrovinsky L (2010) The crystal structure of gypsum-II determined by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Am Miner 95(4):655–658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Pedersen BF, Semmingsen D (1982) Neutron diffraction refinement of the structure of gypsum, CaSO4·2H2O. Acta Crystallogr Sect Struct Crystallogr Cryst Chem 38(4):1074–1077

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Guan Q, Sun W, Hu Y, Yin Z, Guan C (2017) A facile method of transforming FGD gypsum to α-CaSO4 0.5 H2O whiskers with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and KCl in glycerol-water solution. Sci Rep 7(1):1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Gencel O, Ozel C, Koksal F, Erdogmus E, Martínez-Barrera G, Brostow W (2012) Properties of concrete paving blocks made with waste marble. J Clean Prod 21(1):62–70

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Kumar D, Posinasetti N, Dangayach G (2016) An investigation on optimization of parameters for injection molded Polypropylene-marble composites with multi objective genetic algorithm

  59. 59.

    Zorluer İ, Gucek S (2014) The effects of marble dust and fly ash on clay soil. Sci Eng Compos Mater 21:59–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Buyuksagis IS, Uygunoğlu T, Tatar E (2017) Investigation on the usage of waste marble powder in cement-based adhesive mortar. Constr Build Mater 154:734–742

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Ulubeyli G, Bilir T, Artir R (2016) Durability properties of concrete produced by marble waste as aggregate or mineral additives. Procedia Eng 161:543–548

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Hebhoub H, Aoun H, Belachia M, Houari H, Ghorbel E (2011) Use of waste marble aggregates in concrete. Constr Build Mater 25(3):1167–1171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Allam ME, Amin SK, Garas G (2020) Testing of cementitious roofing tile specimens using marble waste slurry. Int J Sustain Eng 13(2):151–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Martínez-Barrera G, Menchaca-Campos C, Gencel O (2013) Polyester polymer concrete: effect of the marble particle sizes and high gamma radiation doses. Constr Build Mater 41:204–208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Koçyiğit Ş, Çay V (2018) Mechanical properties of the composite material produced by the mixture of expanded perlite, waste marble dust and tragacanth. Eur J Tech 8:124–133

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Khedr S, El-Haggar S, Hamza R (2011) Utilization of marble and granite waste in concrete brick

  67. 67.

    Bilgin-Erdoğan N, Yeprem HA, Arslan S, Bilgin A, Gunay E, Marşoglu M (2012) Use of waste marble powder in brick industry. Constr Build Mater 29:449–457

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Ribeiro CEG, Rodriguez RJS (2015) Influence of compaction pressure and particle content on thermal and mechanical behavior of artificial marbles with marble waste and unsaturated polyester. Mater Res 18:283–290

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Silva F, Gomes Ribeiro C, Sanchez Rodriguez R (2017) Physical and mechanical characterization of artificial stone with marble calcite waste and epoxy resin. Mater Res 21

  70. 70.

    Ulubeyli GC, Artir R (2015) Properties of hardened concrete produced by waste marble powder. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 195:2181–2190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    B.o.I. Standards, Indian Standard Methods of Test for Soils, Part III Determination of Specific Gravity, Section 1 Fine Grained Soils, IS: 2720 (Part III/Sec 1), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1980 (Reaffirmed 2002)

  72. 72.

    B.o.I. Standards, Indian Standard Methods of Test for Soils, Part II Determination of Water Content (Second Revision), IS: 2720 (Part II)-1973, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India, 1973 (Reaffirmed 2010)

  73. 73.

    CPCB, Guidelines for management, handling, utilisation and disposal of phosphogypsum generated from phosphoric acid plants, hazardous waste management series, in: F.C.C. Ministry of Environment (Ed.) Delhi, October 2014

  74. 74.

    Krejsová J, Schneiderová-Heralová R, Doleželová M, Vimmrová A (2019) Environmentally friendly lightweight gypsum-based materials with waste stone dust. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part L J Mater Des Appl 233(3):258–267

    Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    Essabir H, Nekhlaoui S, Bensalah MO, Rodrigue D, Bouhfid R (2017) Phosphogypsum waste used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites: structural, mechanical and thermal properties. J Polym Environ 25(3):658–666

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Lee JC, Bradshaw SL, Edil TB, Benson CH (2012) Quantifying the benefits of flue gas desulfurization gypsum in sustainable wallboard production. Coal Combust Gasif Prod 4:17–20

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Chesner WH, Collins RJ, MacKay MH, Emery J (2002) User guidelines for waste and by-product materials in pavement construction. Recycled Materials Resource Center

    Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    ND Bureau of Indian Standards, India, IS 12679: 1989, Indian Standard, By-Product Gypsum for Use in Plaster, Blocks and Boards—Specification, Reaffirmed 2000

  79. 79.

    Toubal-Seghir N, Mellas M, Sadowski Ł, Krolicka A, Żak A, Ostrowski K (2019) The utilization of waste marble dust as a cement replacement in air-cured mortar. Sustainability 11(8):2215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    Kushwah R, Singh Chaurasiya PBL (2015) White washing with marble slurry. Int J Environ Sci Technol 1(2):22–25

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Singh M, Srivastava A, Agarwal P. Low cost concrete bricks using marble slurry as a raw material. SSRG Int J Civ Eng Spec Issue-ISSN: 2320-5083, pp 120–124

  82. 82.

    El-Mahllawy MS, Kandeel AM, Abdel-Latif ML, El-Nagar AM (2018) The feasibility of using marble cutting waste in a sustainable building clay industry. Recycling 3(3):39

    Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Khan MMH, Havukainen J, Horttanainen M (2020) Impact of utilizing solid recovered fuel on the global warming potential of cement production and waste management system: a life cycle assessment approach. Waste Manag Res 0734242X20978277.

  84. 84.

    Scrivener KL, John VM, Gartner EM (2018) Eco-efficient cements: potential economically viable solutions for a low-CO2 cement-based materials industry. Cem Concr Res 114:2–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    G.o. India, Indian Minerals Yearbook 2018 (Part—III: mineral reviews), minor minerals, 30.12 gypsum and selenite, 57th edition (advance release), in: I.B.o.M. Ministry of Mines (Ed.) Nagpur, February 2019

  86. 86.

    Rashad AM (2017) Phosphogypsum as a construction material. J Clean Prod 166:732–743

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Singh M, Garg M (2002) Production of beneficiated phosphogypsum for cement manufacture

  88. 88.

    Galos K, Smakowski T, Szlugaj J (2003) Flue-gas desulphurisation products from Polish coal-fired power-plants. Appl Energy 75(3–4):257–265

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Lu GX, Sheng SH (2008) Thermal treatment and utilization of flue gas desulphurization gypsum as an admixture in cement and concrete. Constr Build Mater 22(7):1

    Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Seo SK, Chu YS, Shim KB, Lee JK, Song H, Seo SK, Chu YS, Shim KB, Lee JK, Song H (2016) The influence of FGD gypsum fabricated from limestone sludge on cement properties. J Korean Ceram Soc 53(6):676–681

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Amato I (2013) Concrete solutions: cement manufacturing is a major source of greenhouse gases. But cutting emissions means mastering one of the most complex materials known. Nature 494(7437):300–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Hunger M, Brouwers H (2008) Natural stone waste powders applied to SCC mix design. Restor Build Monum 14(2):131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Khaliq SU, Khan S, Alam B, Bilal F, Zeb M, Akbar F (2016) Marble powder’s effect on permeability and mechanical properties of concrete. Int J Civ Environ Eng 10(4):537–542

    Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Ofuyatan OM, Olowofoyeku AM, Obatoki J, Oluwafemi J (2019) Utilization of marble dust powder in concrete. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng 640:012053

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Ural N, Karakurt C, Cömert AT (2014) Influence of marble wastes on soil improvement and concrete production. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16(3):500–508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Zorluer I, Taspolat LT (2009) Reuse of waste marble dust in the landfill layer. In: First International Symposium on Sustainable Development. Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, pp. 301–305

  97. 97.

    Jayachandran K. Gypsum—a building block for Green homes, The Fertilisers and Chemicals Travancore Limited, Kochi. In: National Workshop on Global Warming and its Implications for Kerala, Kerala, India, pp 201–204

  98. 98.

    Álvarez-Ayuso E, Querol X (2007) Stabilization of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills using amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive. Chemosphere 69(2):295–302

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Álvarez-Ayuso E, Querol X, Tomás A (2008) Implications of moisture content determination in the environmental characterisation of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills. J Hazard Mater 153(1–2):544–550

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

  101. 101.

    Misra A, Mathur R, Rao Y, Singh A, Goel P (2010) A new technology of marble slurry waste utilisation in roads

  102. 102.

    Gurbuz A (2015) Marble powder to stabilise clayey soils in sub-bases for road construction. Road Mater Pavement Des 16(2):481–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.

    Firat S, Khatib JM, Yilmaz G, Comert A (2017) Effect of curing time on selected properties of soil stabilized with fly ash, marble dust and waste sand for road sub-base materials. Waste Manag Res 35(7):747–756

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    Saygili A (2015) Use of waste marble dust for stabilization of clayey soil. Mater Sci 21(4):601–606

    Google Scholar 

  105. 105.

    Butalia T, Wolfe W (2000) Market opportunities for utilization of ohio flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and other coal combustion products (CCPs), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science, Ohio State University. Available on-line at–1.pdf 1 Sep 2005

  106. 106.

    Glogowski P (1989) Ash utilization in highways: Pennsylvania demonstration project, Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA); GAI Consultants, Inc

  107. 107.

    Payette RM, Wolfe WE, Beeghly J (1997) Use of clean coal combustion by-products in highway repairs. Fuel 76(8):749–753

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    Khanam S, Abbas S, Abbas S (2017) Environmental risk mitigation using optimal mix for road embankments of marble dust and WTP sludge with soil. MOJ Civil Eng 2(5):151–156

    Google Scholar 

  109. 109., Agricultural Uses for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum

  110. 110.

    Watts DB, Dick WA (2014) Sustainable uses of FGD gypsum in agricultural systems: introduction. J Environ Qual 43(1):246–252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. 111.

    Kost D, Ladwig KJ, Chen L, DeSutter TM, Espinoza L, Norton LD, Smeal D, Torbert HA, Watts DB, Wolkowski RP (2018) Meta-analysis of gypsum effects on crop yields and chemistry of soils plant tissues, and vadose water at various research sites in the USA. J Environ Qual 47(5):1284–1292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    Wang J, Yang P (2018) Potential flue gas desulfurization gypsum utilization in agriculture: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 82:1969–1978

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    Truman C, Nuti R, Truman L, Dean J (2010) Feasibility of using FGD gypsum to conserve water and reduce erosion from an agricultural soil in Georgia. CATENA 81(3):234–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    Greenleaf Advisors L. (2015) Gypsum for agricultural use: the state of the science

  115. 115.

    Lloyd GM (1985) Phosphogypsum: a review of the Florida Institute of Phosphate Research programs to develop uses for phosphogypsum, Florida Institute of Phosphate Research

  116. 116.

    Dey A, Bajpai OP, Sikder AK, Chattopadhyay S, Khan MAS (2016) Recent advances in CNT/graphene based thermoelectric polymer nanocomposite: a proficient move towards waste energy harvesting. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53:653–671

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. 117.

    Gutiérrez-González S, Gadea J, Rodríguez A, Blanco-Varela M, Calderón V (2012) Compatibility between gypsum and polyamide powder waste to produce lightweight plaster with enhanced thermal properties. Constr Build Mater 34:179–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. 118.

    Samson G, Phelipot-Mardelé A, Lanos C (2017) A review of thermomechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Mag Concr Res 69(4):201–216

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. 119.

    Doleželová M, Krejsová J, Vimmrová A (2017) Lightweight gypsum based materials: methods of preparation and utilization. Int J Sustain Dev Plan 12(2):326–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. 120.

    Gutiérrez-González S, Gadea J, Rodríguez A, Junco C, Calderón V (2012) Lightweight plaster materials with enhanced thermal properties made with polyurethane foam wastes. Constr Build Mater 28(1):653–658

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. 121.

    Alyousef R, Benjeddou O, Soussi C, Khadimallah MA, Jedidi M (2019) Experimental study of new insulation lightweight concrete block floor based on perlite aggregate natural sand, and sand obtained from marble waste. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2019:8160461

    Google Scholar 

  122. 122.

    Türkmenoğlu ZF, Türkmenoglu M, Yavuz D (2016) Using waste marbles in self compacting lightweight concrete. Tunn Constr 5:6

    Google Scholar 

  123. 123.

    Galán-Arboledas RJ, Merino-García A, Bueno S (2016) Lighter structural clay ceramics manufactured with marble cutting dust and paperboard based packaging waste. Key Eng Mater 663:105–114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. 124.

    Yadav VK, Yadav KK, Cabral-Pinto MMS, Choudhary N, Gnanamoorthy G, Tirth V, Prasad S, Khan AH, Islam S, Khan NA (2021) The Processing of calcium rich agricultural and industrial waste for recovery of calcium carbonate and calcium oxide and their application for environmental cleanup: a review. Appl Sci 11(9):4212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  125. 125.

    Norouzi M, Chàfer M, Cabeza LF, Jiménez L, Boer D (2021) Circular economy in the building and construction sector: a scientific evolution analysis. J Build Eng 44:102704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  126. 126.

    Eberhardt LCM, Birkved M, Birgisdottir H (2020) Building design and construction strategies for a circular economy. Archit Eng Des Manag 1–21

  127. 127.

  128. 128.

    Ghisellini P, Cialani C, Ulgiati S (2016) A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems. J Clean Prod 114:11–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. 129.

    Korhonen J, Honkasalo A, Seppälä J (2018) Circular economy: the concept and its limitations. Ecol Econ 143:37–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. 130.

    Bocken NMP, de Pauw I, Bakker C, van der Grinten B (2016) Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy. J Ind Prod Eng 33(5):308–320

    Google Scholar 

  131. 131.

    Leising E, Quist J, Bocken N (2018) Circular economy in the building sector: three cases and a collaboration tool. J Clean Prod 176:976–989

    Article  Google Scholar 

  132. 132.

    Ajayabi A, Chen H-M, Zhou K, Hopkinson P, Wang Y, Lam D (2019) REBUILD: regenerative buildings and construction systems for a circular economy. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 225:012015

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are thankful to the Director Dr. A. K. Srivastava, CSIR—AMPRI, Bhopal for permission of doing this work. The authors are also thankful to the editor for their valuable comments.


The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.

Author information




Conceptualization: PB, AP. Methodology: PB. Formal analysis and investigation: PB. Writing—original draft preparation: PB. Writing—review and editing: PB, AP. Resources: AP, MKG. Supervision: AP.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Payal Bakshi or Asokan Pappu.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are relevant to the content of this article.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bakshi, P., Pappu, A. & Gupta, M.K. A review on calcium-rich industrial wastes: a sustainable source of raw materials in India for civil infrastructure—opportunities and challenges to bond circular economy. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2021).

Download citation


  • Marble waste
  • FGD gypsum
  • Construction material
  • Recycling
  • Waste utilization