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A review on calcium-rich industrial wastes: a sustainable source of raw materials in India for civil infrastructure—opportunities and challenges to bond circular economy

Abstract

This study provides an overview of calcium rich industrial wastes usage in construction materials, their properties and different applications through marble waste and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum. Large quantities of industrial wastes are stockpiled and haphazardly disposed in increasing amounts causing serious environmental concerns. The extensive use of marble and gypsum products is increasing in construction industry and limited amount of natural sources are available, which requires alternative sources of calcium-rich raw materials. The aim of this study is to explore the recycling opportunities for calcium-rich industrial wastes which have good technical properties and can be used as raw materials for civil infrastructure. Utilization of these industrial wastes, leads to increase economical efficiency and it takes a positive step towards the conservation of natural materials, resource recovery and protecting the environment. The findings of the previous work done by different researchers affirm the need of further detailed scientific research for the effective utilization of marble waste and FGD gypsum. As per the present study, approximately 22 million tons of marble waste and 20 million tons of FGD gypsum are expected to be generated by the year 2040 in India. The results of physico-chemical analysis indicated that marble waste and FGD gypsum has potential as raw material for civil infrastructure. This research review focuses on the transformation of marble waste and FGD gypsum towards sustainable production of construction materials, work done so far, current best practices of its utilization and future possibilities.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to the Director Dr. A. K. Srivastava, CSIR—AMPRI, Bhopal for permission of doing this work. The authors are also thankful to the editor for their valuable comments.

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The authors did not receive support from any organization for the submitted work.

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Conceptualization: PB, AP. Methodology: PB. Formal analysis and investigation: PB. Writing—original draft preparation: PB. Writing—review and editing: PB, AP. Resources: AP, MKG. Supervision: AP.

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Correspondence to Payal Bakshi or Asokan Pappu.

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Bakshi, P., Pappu, A. & Gupta, M.K. A review on calcium-rich industrial wastes: a sustainable source of raw materials in India for civil infrastructure—opportunities and challenges to bond circular economy. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-021-01295-4

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Keywords

  • Marble waste
  • FGD gypsum
  • Construction material
  • Recycling
  • Waste utilization