Solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes using geopolymers as sustainable binders


Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of hazardous waste using cement for immobilization of contaminants has been recognized as Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, which has been practiced in India too. However, the growing concerns over the environmental impacts and carbon footprints of cement production have inspired the waste managers and policymakers to develop and support more sustainable binders for S/S. The present study aims at exploring the potential of waste-derived geopolymers to be used in the treatment of hazardous wastes generated from industrial operations using S/S technology with a special focus on Indian waste management scenario. The present study presents a literature review on the use of certain kinds of industrial waste as the so-called “green binders” by combining sodium silicate and alkalis such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide by the process of geopolymerization. Such green binders are typically fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), rice husk ash, kaolin and metakaolin, which has better environmental acceptance and considered as more sustainable when compared with convention binders. The binder materials can potentially be used as an alternative to cement, which will reduce greenhouse gas emissions in cement production and reduce the energy requirement in the cement industry (minimization of carbon footprints). Additionally, the ashes produced from the coal-fired thermal power plant and other industries should be put to gainful use, and thereby, costs for treatment and disposal of waste can be minimized. Various studies have been reported in the literature that fly ash-based geopolymers can be effectively employed to immobilize heavy metals in industrial sludges and incinerator ashes containing Pb, Ni, Zn Mn, and Cr, because geopolymers create chemical bonds, thereby causes physical encapsulation. It is hoped that this green binder would minimize not only the environmental burden of fly ash generated from the thermal power plants in India but also produce the so-called refuse-derived green construction products. Reportedly, out of the total of 9.44 million tonnes of hazardous waste generated per year in India, nearly 38% is landfillable waste. The landfillable waste needs to be treated before its final disposal into the secured landfills to immobilize the hazardous contaminants and remove the moisture. For this purpose, according to the estimates made in this study, nearly 897,000 tonnes of cement is needed for S/S of hazardous waste which can be saved by replacing it with sustainable binders called geopolymers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. 1.

    Woodard F (2001) Industrial waste treatment handbook. Elsevier

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Misra V, Pandey SD (2005) Hazardous waste, impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. Environ Int 31(3):417–431

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Karthikeyan L, Suresh VM, Krishnan V, Tudor T, Varshini V (2018) The management of hazardous solid waste in India: an overview. Environments 5(9):103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kumar S, Mukherjee S, Chakrabarti T, Devotta S (2007) Hazardous waste management system in India: an overview. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 38(1):43–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Mahzuz HMA, Alam R, Alam MN, Basak R, Islam MS (2009) Use of arsenic contaminated sludge in making ornamental bricks. Int J Environ Sci Tech 6(2):291–298

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Spence RD, Shi C (eds) (2004) Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. CRC Press

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    CPCB (2019) Interim report of monitoring committee on management of hazardous waste. Central Pollution Control Board

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    CPCB (2010) Protocol for performance evaluation and monitoring of the common hazardous waste treatment storage and disposal facilities including common hazardous waste incinerators. Central Pollution Control Board, Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Vaidya R, Kodam K, Ghole V, Rao KSM (2010) Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill. J Environ Manage 91(9):1821–1830

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Randall P, Chattopadhyay S (2004) Advances in encapsulation technologies for the management of mercury-contaminated hazardous wastes. J Hazard Mater 114(1–3):211–223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Visvanathan C (1996) Hazardous waste disposal. Resour Conserv Recycl 16(1–4):201–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Al-Ansary MS, Al-Tabbaa A (2007) Stabilisation/solidification of synthetic petroleum drill cuttings. J Hazard Mater 141(2):410–421

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Ioannidis TA, Zouboulis AI (2005) Solidification/stabilization of hazardous solid wastes. Water Encyclopedia 1:835–840

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Malviya R, Chaudhary R (2006) Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review. J Hazard Mater 137(1):267–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Sophia CA, Sandhya S, Swaminathan K (2010) Solidification and stabilization of chromium laden wastes in cementitious binders. Curr Sci 99(3):365–369

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Vinter S, Montañés MT, Bednarik V, Hrivnova P (2016) Stabilization/solidification of hot dip galvanizing ash using different binders. J Hazard Mater 320:105–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Petrillo A, Cioffi R, De Felice F, Colangelo F, Borrelli C (2016) An environmental evaluation: a comparison between geopolymer and OPC concrete paving blocks manufacturing process in Italy. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 35(6):1699–1708

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Stajanča M, Eštoková A (2012) Environmental impacts of cement production. Lviv Polytechnic National University

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Toniolo N, Boccaccini AR (2017) Fly ash-based geopolymers containing added silicate waste. A review. Ceram Int 43(17):14545–14551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Boden TA, Andres RJ, Marland G (2017) Global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (1751–2014) (v. 2017). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Boden TA, Marland G, Andres RJ (2009) Global, regional, and national fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Herzog T (2009) World greenhouse gas emissions in 2005. World Resources Institute

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Andrew RM (2018) Global CO2 emissions from cement production CICERO Centre for International Climate Research, Oslo 0349, Norway. Earth Syst Sci Data 10:195–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Joshi SV, Kadu MS (2012) Role of alkaline activator in development of eco-friendly fly ash based geo polymer concrete. Int J Environ Sci Dev 3(5):417

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    McLellan BC, Williams RP, Lay J, Van Riessen A, Corder GD (2011) Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary Portland cement. J Clean Prod 19(9–10):1080–1090

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Mathew BJ, Sudhakar M, Natarajan C (2013) Strength, economic and sustainability characteristics of coal ash–GGBS based geopolymer concrete. Int J Comput Eng Res 3(1):207–212

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Huseien GF, Mirza J, Ismail M, Ghoshal SK, Hussein AA (2017) Geopolymer mortars as sustainable repair material: a comprehensive review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 80:54–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Habert G, De Lacaillerie JDE, Roussel N (2011) An environmental evaluation of geopolymer based concrete production: reviewing current research trends. J Clean Prod 19(11):1229–1238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Ferone C, Roviello G, Colangelo F, Cioffi R, Tarallo O (2013) Novel hybrid organic-geopolymer materials. Appl Clay Sci 73:42–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Duxson P, Provis JL, Lukey GC, Van Deventer JS (2007) The role of inorganic polymer technology in the development of ‘green concrete.’ Cem Concr Res 37(12):1590–1597

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Komnitsas K, Zaharaki D (2007) Geopolymerisation: a review and prospects for the minerals industry. Miner Eng 20(14):1261–1277

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Van Deventer JS, Provis JL, Duxson P (2012) Technical and commercial progress in the adoption of geopolymer cement. Miner Eng 29:89–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Van Deventer JS, Provis JL, Duxson P, Brice DG (2010) Chemical research and climate change as drivers in the commercial adoption of alkali activated materials. Waste Biomass Valoriz 1(1):145–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Davidovits J (1994) Properties of geopolymer cements, vol 1. In: First international conference on alkaline cements and concretes Scientific Research Institute on Binders and Materials Kiev, Ukraine, pp 131–149

  35. 35.

    De Silva P, Sagoe-Crenstil K, Sirivivatnanon V (2007) Kinetics of geopolymerization: role of Al2O3 and SiO2. Cem Concr Res 37(4):512–518

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Khale D, Chaudhary R (2007) Mechanism of geopolymerization and factors influencing its development: a review. J Mater Sci 42(3):729–746

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Arioz E, Arioz Ö, Koçkar ÖM (2013) The effect of curing conditions on the properties of geopolymer samples. Int J Chem Eng Appl 4:423–426

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Memon FA, Nuruddin MF, Demie S, Shafiq N (2011) Effect of curing conditions on strength of fly ash-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete. IJCESCAE 5(8):342–345

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Turner LK, Collins FG (2013) Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions: a comparison between geopolymer and OPC cement concrete. Constr Build Mater 43:125–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Arnold MC, de Vargas AS, Bianchini L (2017) Study of electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD) in fly ash and rice husk ash-based geopolymers. Adv Powder Technol 28(9):2023–2034

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Zejak I, Nikolic DB, Radmilovic VV (2013) Mechanical and microstructural properties of the fly-ash-based geopolymer paste and mortar. Mater Technol 47:535–540

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Provis JL, Van Deventer JSJ (eds) (2009) Geopolymers: structures, processing, properties and industrial applications. Elsevier

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Ranjbar N, Mehrali M, Alengaram UJ, Metselaar HSC, Jumaat MZ (2014) Compressive strength and microstructural analysis of fly ash/palm oil fuel ash based geopolymer mortar under elevated temperatures. Constr Build Mater 65:114–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Pappu A, Saxena M, Asolekar SR (2007) Solid wastes generation in India and their recycling potential in building materials. Build Environ 42(6):2311–2320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Asokan P, Saxena M, Asolekar SR (2005) Coal combustion residues—environmental implications and recycling potentials. Resour Conserv Recycl 43(3):239–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Guo X, Shi H (2012) Self-solidification/stabilization of heavy metal wastes of class C fly ash–based geopolymers. J Mater Civ Eng 25(4):491–496

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Zheng L, Wang C, Wang W, Shi Y, Gao X (2011) Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash. Waste Manage 31(2):311–317

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Tzanakos K, Mimilidou A, Anastasiadou K, Stratakis A, Gidarakos E (2014) Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers. Waste Manage 34(10):1823–1828

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Pereira CF, Luna Y, Querol X, Antenucci D, Vale J (2009) Waste stabilization/solidification of an electric arc furnace dust using fly ash-based geopolymers. Fuel 88(7):1185–1193

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Galiano YL, Pereira CF, Vale J (2011) Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers. J Hazard Mater 185(1):373–381

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Luna Y, Fernández-Pereira C, Vale J, Alberca L (2009) Waste stabilization/solidification (s/s) using fly ash-based geopolymers. Influence of carbonation on the s/s of an EAF dust. In: Proceedings of the 3rd World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference, Lexington, 2009.

  52. 52.

    Swain K (2015) Stabilization of soil using geopolymer and biopolymer (Doctoral dissertation). Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

  53. 53.

    Nikolić I, Đurović D, Blečić D, Zejak R, Karanović L, Mitsche S, Radmilović VR (2013) Geopolymerization of coal fly ash in the presence of electric arc furnace dust. Miner Eng 49:24–32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Novais RM, Ascensão G, Seabra MP, Labrincha JA (2016) Waste glass from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as raw material in geopolymers. Waste Manage 52:245–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Cantarel V, Nouaille F, Rooses A, Lambertin D, Poulesquen A, Frizon F (2015) Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer. J Nucl Mater 464:16–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Shiota K, Nakamura T, Takaoka M, Aminuddin SF, Oshita K, Fujimori T (2017) Stabilization of lead in an alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash–pyrophyllite-based system. J Environ Manage 201:327–334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Shiota K, Nakamura T, Takaoka M, Aminuddin SF, Oshita K, Fujimori T (2017) Stabilization of cesium in alkali-activated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash and a pyrophyllite-based system. Chemosphere 187:188–195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Hoy M, Horpibulsuk S, Rachan R, Chinkulkijniwat A, Arulrajah A (2016) Recycled asphalt pavement–fly ash geopolymers as a sustainable pavement base material: strength and toxic leaching investigations. Sci Total Environ 573:19–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Guo B, Pan DA, Liu B, Volinsky AA, Fincan M, Du J, Zhang S (2017) Immobilization mechanism of Pb in fly ash-based geopolymer. Constr Build Mater 134:123–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Rooses A, Steins P, Dannoux-Papin A, Lambertin D, Poulesquen A, Frizon F (2013) Encapsulation of Mg–Zr alloy in metakaolin-based geopolymer. Appl Clay Sci 73:86–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    El-Eswed BI, Aldagag OM, Khalili FI (2017) Efficiency and mechanism of stabilization/solidification of Pb(ii), Cd(ii), Cu(ii), Th(iv) and U(vi) in metakaolin based geopolymers. Appl Clay Sci 140:148–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Nikolić V, Komljenović M, Marjanović N, Baščarević Z, Petrović R (2014) Lead immobilization by geopolymers based on mechanically activated fly ash. Ceram Int 40(6):8479–8488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    El-Eswed BI, Yousef RI, Alshaaer M, Hamadneh I, Al-Gharabli SI, Khalili F (2015) Stabilization/solidification of heavy metals in kaolin/zeolite based geopolymers. Int J Miner Process 137:34–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    Ogundiran MB, Nugteren HW, Witkamp GJ (2013) Immobilisation of lead smelting slag within spent aluminate—fly ash based geopolymers. J Hazard Mater 248:29–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Phummiphan I, Horpibulsuk S, Rachan R, Arulrajah A, Shen SL, Chindaprasirt P (2018) High calcium fly ash geopolymer stabilized lateritic soil and granulated blast furnace slag blends as a pavement base material. J Hazard Mater 341:257–267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. 66.

    Perná I, Hanzlíček T (2014) The solidification of aluminum production waste in geopolymer matrix. J Clean Prod 84:657–662

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Nikolić V, Komljenović M, Džunuzović N, Ivanović T, Miladinović Z (2017) Immobilization of hexavalent chromium by fly ash-based geopolymers. Compos B Eng 112:213–223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Chen Y, Han F, Wu L (2015) Leaching of lead from geopolymer prepared by waste acid residue. Procedia Eng 102:395–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Sun T, Chen J, Lei X, Zhou C (2014) Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue with metakaolin-based geopolymer. J Environ Chem Eng 2(1):304–309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Wang Y, Han F, Mu J (2018) Solidification/stabilization mechanism of Pb (ii), Cd (ii), Mn (ii) and Cr (iii) in fly ash based geopolymers. Constr Build Mater 160:818–827

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Salihoglu G (2014) Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 64(11):1288–1298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    Bankowski P (2006) A case study on stabilization and reuse of geopolymer-encapsulated brown coal fly ash. Int J Sustain Dev Plan 1(1):76–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. 73.

    Abdullah MMAB, Tahir MFM, Hussin K, Zuber SZS, Abdullah A, Ahmad MI, Binhussain M (2016) U.S. Patent No. 9,447,555. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

  74. 74.

    Lloyd NA, Rangan BV (2010) Geopolymer concrete with fly ash, vol 3. In: Second international conference on sustainable construction materials and technologies, pp 1493–1504.

  75. 75.

    CEA (2018) Report on fly ash generation at coal/lignite based thermal power stations and its utilisation in the country for the year 2017–2018. Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    Glavind M (2009) Sustainability of cement, concrete and cement replacement materials in construction. Sustainability of construction materials. Woodhead Publishing, London, pp 120–147

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    Bell JL, Driemeyer PE, Kriven WM (2009) Formation of ceramics from metakaolin-based geopolymers: part I—Cs-based geopolymer. J Am Ceram Soc 92(1):1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    Clausi M, Tarantino SC, Magnani LL, Riccardi MP, Tedeschi C, Zema M (2016) Metakaolin as a precursor of materials for applications in cultural heritage: geopolymer-based mortars with ornamental stone aggregates. Appl Clay Sci 132:589–599

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Cyr M, Idir R, Escadeillas G (2012) Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials. J Hazard Mater 243:193–203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    El-Naggar MR, El-Dessouky MI (2017) Re-use of waste glass in improving properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers: mechanical and microstructure examinations. Constr Build Mater 132:543–555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    Mo BH, Zhu H, Cui XM, He Y, Gong SY (2014) Effect of curing temperature on geopolymerization of metakaolin-based geopolymers. Appl Clay Sci 99:144–148

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. 82.

    Pelisser F, Guerrino EL, Menger M, Michel MD, Labrincha JA (2013) Micromechanical characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymers. Constr Build Mater 49:547–553

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Vasconcelos E, Fernandes S, De Aguiar JB, Pacheco-Torgal F (2011) Concrete retrofitting using metakaolin geopolymer mortars and CFRP. Constr Build Mater 25(8):3213–3221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Yip CK, Provis JL, Lukey GC, van Deventer JS (2008) Carbonate mineral addition to metakaolin-based geopolymers. Cem Concr Compos 30(10):979–985

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    Bouaissi A, Li LY, Abdullah MMAB, Bui QB (2019) Mechanical properties and microstructure analysis of FA-GGBS-HMNS based geopolymer concrete. Constr Build Mater 210:198–209

    Article  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    Chen Z, Li JS, Zhan BJ, Sharma U, Poon CS (2018) Compressive strength and microstructural properties of dry-mixed geopolymer pastes synthesized from GGBS and sewage sludge ash. Constr Build Mater 182:597–607

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    Panda B, Unluer C, Tan MJ (2018) Investigation of the rheology and strength of geopolymer mixtures for extrusion-based 3D printing. Cem Concr Compos 94:307–314

    Article  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    Rao GM, Rao TG (2015) Final setting time and compressive strength of fly ash and GGBS-based geopolymer paste and mortar. Arab J Sci Eng 40(11):3067–3074

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Shahmansouri AA, Bengar HA, Ghanbari S (2020) Compressive strength prediction of eco-efficient GGBS-based geopolymer concrete using GEP method. J Build Eng 31:101326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Xie J, Chen W, Wang J, Fang C, Zhang B, Liu F (2019) Coupling effects of recycled aggregate and GGBS/metakaolin on physicochemical properties of geopolymer concrete. Constr Build Mater 226:345–359

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Xie J, Wang J, Rao R, Wang C, Fang C (2019) Effects of combined usage of GGBS and fly ash on workability and mechanical properties of alkali activated geopolymer concrete with recycled aggregate. Compos B Eng 164:179–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Xie J, Wang J, Zhang B, Fang C, Li L (2019) Physicochemical properties of alkali activated GGBS and fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete. Constr Build Mater 204:384–398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.

    Xie J, Zhao J, Wang J, Wang C, Huang P, Fang C (2019) Sulfate resistance of recycled aggregate concrete with GGBS and fly ash-based geopolymer. Materials 12(8):1247

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    Higgins D (2007) GGBS and sustainability, proceedings of ICE. Constr Mater 160(3):99–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    Van Deventer JSJ, Provis JL, Duxson P, Lukey GC (2007) Reaction mechanisms in the geopolymeric conversion of inorganic waste to useful products. J Hazard Mater 139(3):506–513

    Article  Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    Ren B, Zhao Y, Bai H, Kang S, Zhang T, Song S (2020) Eco-friendly geopolymer prepared from solid wastes: a critical review. Chemosphere 267:128900

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    Lancellotti I, Kamseu E, Michelazzi M, Barbieri L, Corradi A, Leonelli C (2010) Chemical stability of geopolymers containing municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Waste Manage 30(4):673–679

    Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    Zhang J, Provis JL, Feng D, van Deventer JS (2008) Geopolymers for immobilization of Cr6+, Cd2+, and Pb2+. J Hazard Mater 157(2–3):587–598

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    Palacios M, Palomo A (2004) Alkali-activated fly ash matrices for lead immobilisation: a comparison of different leaching tests. Adv Cem Res 16(4):137–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Palomo A, Palacios M (2003) Alkali-activated cementitious materials: alternative matrices for the immobilisation of hazardous wastes: part II. Stabilisation of chromium and lead. Cem Concr Res 33(2):289–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Deja J (2002) Immobilization of Cr6+, Cd2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ in alkali-activated slag binders. Cem Concr Res 32(12):1971–1979

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Provis JL (2009) Immobilisation of toxic wastes in geopolymers. geopolymers. Woodhead Publishing, pp 421–440

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richa Singh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singh, R., Budarayavalasa, S. Solidification and stabilization of hazardous wastes using geopolymers as sustainable binders. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2021).

Download citation


  • Solidification and stabilization
  • Geopolymers
  • Hazardous waste
  • Fly ash
  • Treatment