Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 1143–1153 | Cite as

Effectiveness of interventions to induce waste segregation by households: evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Mozambique

  • Tomoyuki Hosono
  • Keitaro Aoyagi


The City Council of Maputo (CMM) and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) began a pilot project to introduce segregated waste discharge in households and its collection in a suburb of Maputo City, Mozambique, in 2014. After an initial rollout of the program showed low household-level compliance with the new waste segregation requirements, CMM and JICA conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) to evaluate potential measures to induce more cooperation from households. The study was a parallel group comparison with three interventions (i.e., household goods exchange, segregation buckets provision, and periodic home visit instruction). In total, 1000 target households (sample size of 250 households for each group) were randomly allocated out of 1817 eligible households in the target area. The analysis found each applied intervention to be effective, the households with interventions were 7.5–10.6% points more likely to segregate the waste compared with the control group (significant at 1% level), and 267.4–386.1 g/households/2 weeks of target recyclables was incrementally discharged from the intervention groups, while that of the control group was 25.57 g/household/2 weeks (significant at 1–10% levels). However, cost-effectiveness of the pilot project and the applied interventions was low when compared with the other recycling pilot projects attempted in the project.


Randomized controlled trial Impact evaluation Waste segregation Recycling Cost-effectiveness 



This study was funded by Japan International Cooperation Agency.

Supplementary material

10163_2017_677_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 Leaflet for residents prepared for the pilot project (PDF 3497 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM2_ESM.jpg (4.1 mb)
Supplementary material 2 Tchovas (pushcart) used for primary waste collection equipped with waste segregation bins (JPEG 4215 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM3_ESM.jpg (771 kb)
Supplementary material 3 Dissemination meeting with community leaders (JPEG 770 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM4_ESM.jpg (3.9 mb)
Supplementary material 4 Dissemination meeting with residents (JPEG 4004 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM5_ESM.jpg (115 kb)
Supplementary material 5 Household goods exchange intervention (JPEG 114 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM6_ESM.jpg (127 kb)
Supplementary material 6 ID/stamp card for household goods exchange intervention (JPEG 126 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM7_ESM.jpg (153 kb)
Supplementary material 7 Segregation buckets provision intervention (JPEG 152 kb)
10163_2017_677_MOESM8_ESM.jpg (806 kb)
Supplementary material 8 Periodic home visit instruction intervention (JPEG 805 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nippon Koei Co., LtdTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Metrics Work Consultants Inc., and Japan International Cooperation AgencyTokyoJapan

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