Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 1090–1098 | Cite as

Sago pith waste ash as a potential raw material for ceramic and geopolymer fabrication

  • Mohamad Rohaidzat bin Mohamed Rashid
  • Mustafa Juma A. Mijarsh
  • Hazman Seli
  • Megat Azmi Megat Johari
  • Zainal Arifin Ahmad


This study focuses on the potential usage of sago pith waste ash (SPWA) obtained from sago pith waste (SPW) calcined from 500 to 1000 °C. SPWA was characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, XRF, FTIR, and FESEM incorporating with EDX. About 4% of SPWA was generated from each tonne of SPW at 700 °C as the optimum calcination temperature as indicated by thermal analysis. The phases found in SPWA at calcination temperatures of less than 800 °C are quartz, calcite, and magnesite. XRF analysis found that SPWA was mainly composed of CaO and SiO2 with the presence of other oxides such as MgO, Fe2O3, and Al2O3. Both CaO and SiO2 are very significant oxides as they can be used as an alternative binder for the synthesis of geopolymer products, especially in combination with other ashes such as fly ash (FA). Geopolymers fabricated from FA partially substituted with SPWA showed a 5% increase in compressive strength. Therefore, the benefits of SPWA are twofold: first, as a resource of renewable energy generated through the burning of SPW which can be utilized by related industries, and second, SPWA itself becomes a potential raw material for the production of ceramic and geopolymer products.


Sago pith waste Characterization Calcination temperatures Geopolymer 



The authors would like to thank the financial support from Universiti Sains Malaysia through the Research University Grant Scheme 001/PBAHAN/811212 and also the Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) academic staff scholarship (500-BPD (JPbSM/BB. 14)). Special thanks to River Link Sago Resources Sdn. Bhd. for providing the sago pith waste.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamad Rohaidzat bin Mohamed Rashid
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mustafa Juma A. Mijarsh
    • 3
  • Hazman Seli
    • 4
  • Megat Azmi Megat Johari
    • 5
  • Zainal Arifin Ahmad
    • 1
  1. 1.Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MARA, Samarahan KampusKota SamarahanMalaysia
  3. 3.Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringAl-Mergeb UniversityAl-KhumsLibya
  4. 4.Faculty of Computer and Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Teknologi MARA, Samarahan KampusKota SamarahanMalaysia
  5. 5.School of Civil EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia

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