Bangalore city generates around 3600 tons/day of solid waste and a major constituent is organic (>70 %). The quantum of wastes generated is far greater than the capacity of the permitted waste treatment and disposal sites. As these sites are quite far-off, many of the trucks dump at unauthorized locations to reduce their transportation costs or meet their daily targets. To understand overall patterns, sources and reasons for dumping, an attempt is made to find the locations, composition and to assess the area of garbage spread at unauthorized dumps in and around the city. The field survey was conducted during August 2010 to April 2012 wherein the accuracy of three techniques (visual estimates, step measurement and Google Earth) was assessed to rapidly estimate area of garbage spread. The total number of unauthorized dumps located outside the core area was 393 and inside core area was 303. The results indicated that the visual estimates to determine the location and area of garbage spread were better in identifying locations of unauthorized dumps in a very short while and can be deployed to assess performance of various mega-cities in transition to good solid-waste management.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Corbyn L (2008) Crackdown on illegal dumping. Handbook for local government, NSW
Tompson L, Chainey S (2011) Profiling illegal waste activity: using crime scripts as a data collection and analytical strategy. Eur J Crim Policy Res 17:179–201
Shekdar AV (2009) Sustainable solid waste management: an integrated approach for Asian countries. Waste Manag 29:1438–1448
Chanakya HN, Swamy SGS (2011) Urban solid waste management status in Karnataka. Technical report CST-KSCST, IISc, Bangalore, pp 114–122
Chanakya HN, Shwetmala, Ramachandra TV (2011) Estimating unauthorized dumping of USW around cities—a case study of Bangalore. In: 2nd International conference on sustainable waste management, Kolkata, pp 636–642
Erb TL, Philipson WR, Teng WL, Liang T (1981) Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos. PE&RS 47(9):1361–1369
Philipson WR, Barnaba EM, Ingram A, Williams VL (1988) Landcover monitoring with SPOT for landfill investigations. PE&RS 54(2):223–228
Jones HK, Chidley TRE (1989) The application of low cost aerial video and photographic data to assess environmental impact caused by the migration of gas away from landfill sites. IGARSS 89, 12th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Vancouver, pp 1674–1676
Airola TM, Kosson DS (1989) Digital analysis of hazardous waste site aerial photographs. JWPCF 61(2):180–183
Barnaba PA, Philipson WR, Ingram AW, Pim J (1991) The use of aerial photographs in country inventories of waste-disposal sites. PE&RS 57(10):1289–1296
Brivio PA, Doria I, Zilioli E (1993) Aspects of spatial autocorrelation of Landsat TM data for the inventory of waste-disposal sites in rural environments. PE&RS 59(9):1377–1382
Chen C, Chang C (2006) Monitoring of illegal dumping using spatial data mining and remote sensing. AARS 1–6
Yonezawa C (2009) Possibility of monitoring of waste disposal site using satellite imagery. JIFS 6:23–28
Lakshmikantha H (2006) Report on waste dump sites around Bangalore. Waste Manag 26:640–650
Chiemchaisri C, Chiemchaisri W, Salvaros O, Luknanulak N, Towprayoon S, Visvanathan C (2005) Comparison of different methods for determining methane emission from waste disposal sites in Thailand. Asian J Energ Environ 6(1):1–16
Chanakya HN, Sharatchandra HC (2005) GHG footprint of a developing country city Bangalore. ASTRA, IISc, Bangalore
Rajabapaiah P (1988) Energy from Bangalore garbage—a preliminary study. ASTRA, IISc, Bangalore
TIDE (Technology Informatics Design Endeavour) (2000) Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in around Bangalore. Aus-Aid, TIDE, Bangalore
Baars JA, Dyson CB (1981) Visual estimates of available herbage on hill country sheep pastures. N Zeal J Exper Agric 9(2):157–160
Waite RB (1994) The application of visual estimation procedures for monitoring pasture yield and composition in exclosures and small plots. Trop Grass 28:38–42
Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Green EP, Anderson CW, Ellis AC, Clark CD (1997) A visual assessments technique for estimating seagrass standing crop. Aqu Cons Mar Freshw Ecosyst 7:239–251
Palmer JF, Hoffman RE (2001) Rating reliability and representation validity in scenic landscape assessments. Lands Urban Plan 54:149–161
O’Donovan M, Dillon P, Rath M, Stakelum G (2002) A comparison of four methods of herbage mass estimation. Irish J Agric Food Res 41:17–27
O’Donovan M, Connolly J, Dillon P, Rath M, Stakelum G (2002) Visual assessment of herbage mass. Irish J Agric Food Res 41(2):201–211
Tveit MS (2009) Indicators of visual scale as predictors of landscape preference; a comparison between groups. J Environ Manag 90:2882–2888
Ode A, Tveit MS, Fry G (2010) Advantages of using different data sources in assessment of landscape change and its effect on visual scale. Ecol Indic 10:24–31
Datta P (2006) Urbanization in India. Regional and Sub-regional population dynamic population process in Urban areas European population conference, 21–24 June 2006
Caughley G, Sinclair R, Scott-Kimmis D (1976) Experiments in aerial survey. J Wildl Manag 40:290–300
Caughley G (1977) Analysis of vertebrate population. Wiley, New York
Francis CM (1994) Population changes of boreal forest ducks—a comment. J Wildl Manag 58:582–586
Keast A, Harker J (1977) Step counts as a means of determining densities and habitat utilization patterns in lake fishes. Environ Biol Fish 1:181–188
Solazzi MF (1984) Relationship between visual counts of cohosalmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from spawning fish surveys and the actual number of fish present. In: Symons PEK, Waldichuck M (eds), Workshop on stream indexing for salmon escapement estimation. Can Fish Aquat Sci Tech Rep 1326:175–186
Winward AH (2000) Monitoring the vegetation resources in Riparian areas. RMRS-GTR-47, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forest Service, USDA
Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):9
Reddy BVV (2009) Sustainable materials for low carbon buildings. Int J Low Carbon Technol 175–181
Stockdale CR (1998) Evaluation of techniques for estimating the yield of irrigated pastures intensively grazed by dairy cows. Aust J Exp Agric 24:300–304
The authors wish to acknowledge the participation and inputs of the 45 student volunteers from Christ University, St. Joseph’s College and MS Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore who carried out the survey in the first part of the study. We also thank Himanshu K., Sreesha M., Yashodha P.S. and Vidya H. for their contributions while conducting this survey. The financial support for this study was provided by the Bangalore City Corporation (Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike, BBMP) and is gratefully acknowledged.
About this article
Cite this article
Chanakya, H.N., Shwetmala & Ramachandra, T.V. Nature and extent of unauthorized waste dump sites in and around Bangalore city. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 19, 342–350 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-015-0423-6
- Unauthorized dump site