Advertisement

Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 229–243 | Cite as

Japan’s waste management policies for dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls

  • Hideto YoshidaEmail author
  • Kazuaki Takahashi
  • Nobuo Takeda
  • Shin-ichi Sakai
Special Feature: Original Article The 3rd Expert Meeting in Solid Waste Management in Asia and Pacific Islands

Abstract

We summarize the measures taken by the Japanese government to prevent the emission of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the environment. Because incineration is the main method of waste management in Japan, reducing the amount of dioxins emitted from waste incinerators is an essential aspect of proper waste treatment. Intensive measures to prevent the formation of dioxins at the source have been implemented, with a focus on waste treatment methods and improving comprehensive management. The efforts have been very successful, with a 95% reduction in the amount of dioxins emitted between 1997 and 2003. The toxicity of PCBs has been monitored with keen interest since the Yusho incident. Unfortunately, treatment facilities for PCB wastes were not built until long after PCBs had been removed from use, and PCB wastes remained in storage in an untreated state. The Japanese government has promoted the construction of facilities for treating PCB wastes, and five such facilities have commenced operations. To more completely eradicate dioxins, a future challenge will be to reduce the amount of PCB-derived dioxins, which are persistent in the environment and have a long exposure pathway from the environment media to the organism and the human body.

Key words

Dioxins PCBs Waste management Incineration Control technology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Annual report on the environment and the sound material-cycle society in Japan 2005 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Waste management in Japan 2003 (in Japanese). Waste Management Division, Waste Management and Recycling Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Olie K, Vermeulen PL, Hutzinger O (1977) Chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorodibenzofurans are trace components of fly ash and flue gas of some municipal incinerators in the Netherlands. Chemosphere 6:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eiceman GA, Clement RE, Karasek FW (1979) Analysis of fly ash from municipal incinerators for trace organic compounds. Anal Chem 51:2343–2350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nakamura K (1997) Local government approach to the control of dioxins (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 8:289–300Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (1999) Preliminary report (in Japanese). Study Group For Dioxins In The Soil, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anonymous (1983) Dioxins detected from bottom and fly ashes of incinerators for municipal solid wastes (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun, November 19, p 1Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wakimoto T, Tatsukawa R (1985) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fly ash and cinders collected from several municipal incinerators in Japan. Environ Health Perspect 59:159–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1990) About the setting of the guidelines for preventing dioxin emission from waste management (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Former Environment Agency of Japan (1984) An urgent investigation into environmental pollution by particle hazardous substances (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Former Environment Agency of Japan (1985) A follow-up survey on the state of pollution by hazardous chemical substances (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hiraoka M, Sakai S, Yoshida H (1992) Japan’s guidelines for controlling dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal waste treatment. Chemosphere 25:1393–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1985–1989) Studies on mechanisms of dioxin emission in waste management (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1990) An official document (issue no. 260, dated December 26) directed to all prefectural governors of Japan: The promotion of measures against dioxin emissions from waste disposal (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare (1990) A note for the directors of general waste management departments in municipal governments of Japan, regarding recent media coverage of dioxin emission from waste incinerators (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1996) The interim report given by a research group for dioxins and the present correspondence, dated June 28 (in Japanese). Office of Life Chemical Safety Measures, Environmental Health Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1996) An official document (issue no. 261, dated October 3) directed to all prefectural governors of Japan: Emergency measures on dioxin reduction from waste disposal (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Study Group for Dioxin Reduction Measures upon Waste Disposal (1997) Guidelines for prevention of dioxin formation relating to waste treatment (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sakai S (1997) Reduction of PCDDs/DFs emission and environmental cycle control (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 8:323–335Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1997) An official document (issue no. 250, dated September 30) directed to all prefectural governors of Japan and the mayors of government ordinance designated cities: Regarding the partial amendment of the enforcement regulation of the Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare (1996) An official document (issue no. 237, dated September 12) notified to the chief directors of general waste management departments in municipal governments of Japan: Requesting the submission of waste disposal facility development plan in FY 1997 (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Media Interface Corporation (1998) Dioxins and endocrine disruptors; a newspaper database edited by the Global Environment Information Center (in Japanese). TokyoGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Environmental Sanitation Sectional Meeting of the Central Environmental Council at the Ministry of the Environment of Japan, Life Environment Council and the Food Sanitation Research Group in the Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1999) Regarding the tolerable daily intake of dioxins (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Plan to reduce dioxin levels resulting from business activities in Japan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Isono N (1975) Chemical substances and human beings (in Japanese). Chuko Shinsho, Tokyo, p 216Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (1972) An official document (issue no. 141, dated December 22) directed to all prefectural governors of Japan: Tentative latitude of PCB discharge in exhaust gas emitted upon incinerating PCBs (in Japanese). Air Preservation Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1973) An official document (issue no. 61, dated August 4): The waste disposal of home appliances with parts that contain PCBs (in Japanese). Environment Sanitation Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    The former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (2000) Record of the waste management sectional meeting of the living environmental council (in Japanese). The Department of Water Environment, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1993) Survey results of the state of PCB waste storage (in Japanese). Industrial Waste Management Office, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hashizume H (1994) Management of PCB waste (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 5:233–242Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Research and the Investigation Committee for Promoting Treatments of equipments containing PCBs (1997) Interim report on promoting PCB treatments (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2003) Regarding the establishment of a nationwide treatment system for PCB waste; handout for the first meeting of the Group for the Examination and the Evaluation of PCB Waste Treatment Businesses (in Japanese). Waste Management and Recycling Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Japan Industrial Waste Management Foundation (2005) Guidebook for PCB treatment technology based on the new standard of waste management and public cleansing law (Revision) (in Japanese). TokyoGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    The Group for Examination and Evaluation of PCB Waste Disposal Businesses (2003) Interim report (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Japan Environment Safety Corporation (2006) JESCO’s five regional PCB waste treatment facilities. Available at http://www.jesconet.co.jp/eg/pcb/facilities.html
  36. 36.
    Cabinet Meeting concerning Measures against Dioxins (1999) Basic guidelines concerning dioxin measures promotion (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Government of Japan (1999) Target volume of waste reduction (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2001) A bulletin (issue no. 43) on the basic guidelines revised in 2005 for overall promotion of the policies regarding waste reduction and its proper treatment (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2003) Fundamental plan for establishing a sound material-cycle society. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1997) An official document (issue no. 173, dated May 28) on wider area projects for waste disposal (in Japanese). Department of the Environmental Maintenance, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1998) An official document (issue no. 87, dated October 28) on the request for submitting a waste disposal facility development plan in FY 1999 (in Japanese). Department of the Environmental Maintenance, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hiraoka M (1997) Recent trends on control of dioxins from waste treatment (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 8:265–278Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nagata K (1992) State-of-the-art of PCDDs/PCDFs emission control for municipal waste incinerators (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 3:217–237Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hiraoka M, Okajima S (1998) Guidance for dioxin reduction measures during waste treatment (in Japanese). Kankyo Shinbunsha, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Japan Environmental Facilities Manufacturers Association (1997) Conversion examples for dioxin reduction measures; tentative version (in Japanese). Tokyo, p 83Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Japan Environmental Facilities Manufacturers Association (1998) Conversion examples for dioxin reduction measures (in Japanese). Tokyo, p 87Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    National Federation of Industrial Waste Management Associations (1997) Voluntary standards of incinerating industrial waste as a dioxin emission control measure (in Japanese). Tokyo, p 11Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1998) An official document (issue no. 1572, dated October 28): Regarding the guidelines for an efficient waste disposal facility related to the waste disposal facility development subsidy project (in Japanese). Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kida A, Sakai S, Shibakawa S, Matsumoto A (2003) Heavy metal emissions from municipal solid waste incineration system retrofitted for dioxin control (in Japanese). Kankyokagaku 13: 51–67Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yamashita M, Honda K, Wakimoto T, Tachikawa R (2003) Summary verification tests using Ehime-method small incinerators for dioxin reduction (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkai Kenkyu Happyoukai Kouen Ronbunshi 11:626–628Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ishibashi N, Okajima S, Yoshihara F, Nishiwaki K, Hiraoka M (2003) De novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans during the gas cooling process in a solid waste incinerator (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkai Ronbunshi 14:17–26Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Japan Industrial Waste Management Foundation (1999) Guidebook for PCB treatment technology (in Japanese). Tokyo, p 210Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2004) An official document (issue no. 041012002, dated October 12): Technical notice for the treatment of waste POP agricultural chemicals (in Japanese). Office of Waste Disposal Management, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Basel Convention (2005) General technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of wastes consisting of, containing or contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Waste treatment in Japan for FY 2005 (in Japanese). Waste Management and Recycling Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Annual reports of the dioxin concentration level in exhaust gas from waste incinerators (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Annual lists of dioxin discharges (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kougyou Shinpou (2004) Order lists of municipal solid waste facilities, 1997–2004. Kougyou ShinpoushaGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Stockholm Convention Secretariat (2004) Draft guidelines on best available techniques and provisional guidance on best environmental practices relevant to Article 5 and Annex C of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Geneva, Switzerland, p 313Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Committee for the Dioxins Due To Waste Disposal (1997) A guide for prevention of emitted dioxins due to waste disposal (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sakai S, Ukai T, Urano S, Takatsuki H, Nakamura K, Kinoshita S (1998) Material flow analysis of PCDDs/DFs in a municipal solid waste incineration system (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkai Ronbunshi 9:123–132Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Clean Association of TOKYO 23 (2006) Results of dioxin measurements at incinerators for municipal solid wastes in special wards of Tokyo (in Japanese). http://www.union.tokyo23-seisou.lg.jp/dioxin/index.htm
  63. 63.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Results of the investigation into the actual conditions of municipal waste disposal in FY 2005 (in Japanese). The Ministry, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Environmental survey of dioxins (in Japanese). Environmental Management Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nakao T, Aozasa O, Ohta S, Miyata H (1997) Formation of dioxin analogues by open-air incineration of waste wood and by fires in buildings and houses in the Hanshin great earthquake in Japan (in Japanese). Organohalogen Compd 31:304–309Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2003) The annual status reports of the investigation on the accumulation and the exposure to dioxins and brominated dioxins (in Japanese). Environmental Health Department, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (1998–2006) The annual survey results on daily dioxin intake from food (in Japanese). Department of Food Safety, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Former Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1999) Concerning daily dioxin intake from food (in Japanese). Department of Food Safety, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2005) Dioxins: cross-ministry pamphlet (in Japanese). Environmental Management Bureau, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Takasuga T, Inoue T, Ohi E (1995) A congener-specific analytical method for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with various chromatographic clean-up and HRGC/HRMS (in Japanese). Kankyou Kagaku 5:647–675Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fukushima T, Ozaki N, Komatsu T, Shimazu N (2002) Fate of persistent organic pollutants: from atmosphere to water, sediment and organisms (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 13:255–263Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Masunaga H (2000) The origin of and change in dioxin pollution in Japan: the contribution of dioxins in herbicides (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 11:173–181Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nakasugi O (2000) Political measures toward risk management of dioxins in Japan (in Japanese). Haikibutsu Gakkaishi 11:182–196Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Takayama K, Miyata H, Mimura M, Kashimoto T (1991) PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in coastal and marketed fish in Japan (in Japanese). Eisei Kagaku 37:125–131Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Iimura F, Sasaki Y, Tsukui T, Yoshioka H, Higashino K, Takeda Y, Kasai K, Iibuchi K (2001) Contamination of dioxins in Tokyo Bay (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Kankyo Kagaku Kenkyujo Nenpou, Tokyo, pp 112–121Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fernandes A, Gallani B, Gem M, White S, Rose M (2004) Trends in the dioxin and PCB content of the UK diet. Organohalogen Compd 66:2053–2060Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Malisch R, Wambold C, Fraisse D, Durgeil A, Defour S, Abad E, Abalos M, Rivera J, Fürst P (2004) PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food samples from Germany, France and Spain — data and proposals for EU legislation. Organohalogen Compd 66:2046–2052Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    The Council of the European Union (2001) Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 of November 29, 2001, amending Commission Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Offic J Eur Communities 6.12.2001Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Verstraete F (2005) Recent and future developments as regards the EU strategy to reduce the presence of dioxin-like compounds in feed and food Organohalogen Compd 67:1421–1423Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Stigum H, Eggesbø M, Polder A, Skaare JU, Becher G, Nicolaysen T, Thomsen C, Magnus P (2005) Dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in breast milk from Norwegian mothers. Organohalogen Compd 67:1560–1563Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Konishi Y, Kuwabara K, Hori S (2003) Continuous monitoring of PCB isomers in human breast milk from 1973 to 2000 in Osaka, Japan. Organohalogen Compd 63:441–444Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hideto Yoshida
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kazuaki Takahashi
    • 2
  • Nobuo Takeda
    • 3
  • Shin-ichi Sakai
    • 4
  1. 1.Japan Environmental Sanitation CenterKawasakiJapan
  2. 2.Industrial Waste Division, Waste Management and Recycling Department of the MOEGovernment of JapanTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Research Center for Eco-TechnologyRitsumeikan UniversityKusatsu, ShigaJapan
  4. 4.Environment Preservation CenterKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations