Skip to main content
Log in

Measurement of Basilar Membrane Motion During Round Window Stimulation in Guinea Pigs

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


Driving the cochlea in reverse via the round window membrane (RWM) is an alternative treatment option for the hearing rehabilitation of a nonfunctional or malformed middle ear. However, cochlear stimulation from the RWM side is not a normal sound transmission pathway. The basilar membrane (BM) motion elicited by mechanical stimulation of the RWM is unknown. In this study, the BM movement at the basal turn was investigated in both reverse via RWM drive and acoustic stimulation in the ear canal or forward drive in postmortem isolated temporal bone preparations of guinea pigs. During reverse drive, a magnet-coil was coupled on RWM, and the BM vibration at the basal turn and the movement of the incus tip were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry. During forward drive, the vibration of the incus tip induced by sound pressure in the ear canal resulted in BM vibration and the BM movement at the same location as that in the reverse stimulation was measured. The displacement ratio of the BM to RWM in reverse drive and the ratio of the BM to incus in forward drive were compared. The results demonstrated that the BM response measured in both situations was similar in nature between forward and reverse drives. This study provides new knowledge for an understanding of BM movement induced by reverse drive via the RWM stimulation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

FIG. 1
FIG. 2
FIG. 3
FIG. 4
FIG. 5
FIG. 6
FIG. 7

Similar content being viewed by others


  • Beltrame AM, Martini A, Prosser S, Giarbini N, Streitberger C (2009) Coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge to cochlea round window: auditory results in patients with mixed hearing loss. Otol Neurotol 30:194–201

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Colletti V, Soli SD, Carner M, Colletti L (2006) Treatment of mixed hearing losses via implantation of a vibratory transducer on the round window. Int J Audiol 45:600–608

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Colletti V, Carner M, Colletti L (2009) TORP vs round window implant for hearing restoration of patients with extensive ossicular chain defect. Acta Otolaryngol 129:449–452

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper NP, Rhode WS (1995) Nonlinear mechanics at the apex of the guinea-pig cochlea. Hear Res 82(2):225–243

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cuda D, Murri A, Tinelli N (2009) Piezoelectric round window osteoplasty for Vibrant Soundbridge implant. Otol Neurotol 30:782–786

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dai CK, Gan RZ (2010) Change in cochlear response in an animal model of otitis media with effusion. Audiol Neurootol 2010(15):155–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dumon T, Zennaro O, Aran JM, Bebear JP (1995) Piezoelectric middle ear implant preserving the ossicular chain. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 28:173–187

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Guan X, Gan RZ (2011) Effect of middle ear fluid on sound transmission and auditory brainstem response in guinea pigs. Hear Res 277:96–106

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hato N, Stenfelt S, Goode RL (2003) Three-dimensional stapes footplate motion in human temporal bones. Audiol Neurotol 8(3):140–152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heiland KE, Goode RL, Asai M, Huber AM (1999) A human temporal bone study of stapes footplate movement. Am J Otol 20(1):81–86

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hemmert W, Zenner H, Gummer AW (2000) Characteristics of the travelling wave in the low-frequency region of a temporal-bone preparation of the guinea-pig cochlea. Hear Res 142:184–202

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kiefer J, Arnold W, Staudenmaier R (2006) Round window stimulation with an implantable hearing aid (Soundbridge) combined with autogenous reconstruction of the auricle—a new approach. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 68:378–385

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Linder T, Schlegel C, DeMin N, van der Westhuizen S (2009) Active middle ear implants in patients undergoing subtotal petrosectomy: new application for the Vibrant Soundbridge device and its implication for lateral cranium base surgery. Otol Neurotol 30:41–47

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lukashkin AN, Weddell T, Russell IJ (2011) Mechanisms of cochlear stimulation through the round window. AIP Conf Proc 1403(1):421–422

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin C, Deveze A, Richard C, Lefebvre PP, Decat M, Ibanez LG, Truy E, Mom T, Lavieille JP, Magnan J, Dubreuil C, Tringali S (2009) European results with totally implantable carina placed on the round window: 2-year follow-up. Otol Neurotol 30:1196–1203

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Morioka I, Reuter G, Reiss P, Gummer AW, Hemmert W, Zenner HP (1995) Sound-induced displacement responses in the plane of the organ of Corti in the isolated guinea-pig cochlea. Hear Res 83:142–150

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nakajima HH, Dong W, Olson ES, Rosowski JJ (2010) Evaluation of round window stimulation using the floating mass transducer by intracochlear sound pressure measurements in human temporal bones. Otol Neurotol 31(3):506–511

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nuttall AL, Dolan DF (1996) Steady-state sinusoidal velocity responses of the basilar membrane in guinea pig. J Acoust Soc Am 99:1556–1565

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nuttall AL, Dolan DF, Avinash G (1991) Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar membrane vibration. Hear Res 51:203–213

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rajan GP, Lampacher P, Ambett R, Dittrich G, Kuthubutheen J, Wood B, McArthur A, Marino R (2011) Impact of floating mass transducer coupling and positioning in round window vibroplasty. Otol Neurotol 32:271–277

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ren T, Nuttall AL (2001) Basilar membrane vibration in the basal turn of the sensitive gerbil cochlea. Hear Res 151(1–2):48–60

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rhode WS (1971) Observations of the vibration of the basilar membrane in squirrel monkeys using the Mossbauer technique. J Acoust Soc Am 49(4):Suppl 2–1218+

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruggero MA, Rich NC (1991) Application of a commercially-manufactured Doppler-shift laser velocimeter to the measurement of basilar-membrane vibration. Hear Res 51(2):215–230

    Article  CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spindel JH, Lambert PR, Ruth RA (1995) The round window electromagnetic implantable hearing-aid approach. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 28:189–205

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stieger C, Rosowski JJ, Nakajima HH (2013) Comparison of forward (ear-canal) and reverse (round-window) sound stimulation of the cochlea. Hear Res 301:105–114

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Streitberger C, Perotti M, Beltrame MA, Giarbini N (2009) Vibrant Soundbridge for hearing restoration after chronic ear surgery. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol 130:83–88

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Voss SE, Rosowski JJ, Peake WT (1996) Is the pressure difference between the oval and round windows the effective acoustic stimulus for the cochlea? J Acoust Soc Am 100:1602–1616

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wever EG, Lawrence M (1950) The acoustic pathways to the cochlea. J Acoust Soc Am 22:460–467

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the NSFC (China, 81070786) and the NIH (USA, R01DC011585). The experiment was conducted in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory at the University of Oklahoma.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tianyu Zhang.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chen, Y., Guan, X., Zhang, T. et al. Measurement of Basilar Membrane Motion During Round Window Stimulation in Guinea Pigs. JARO 15, 933–943 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: