Molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus
- 715 Downloads
In insects, dopamine modulates various aspects of behavior such as learning and memory, arousal and locomotion, and is also a precursor of melanin. To elucidate the molecular basis of the dopaminergic system in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer, we identified genes involved in dopamine biosynthesis, signal transduction, and dopamine re-uptake in the cricket. Complementary DNA of two isoforms of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which convert tyrosine into l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, was isolated from the cricket brain cDNA library. In addition, four dopamine receptor genes (Dop1, Dop2, Dop3, and DopEcR) and a high-affinity dopamine transporter gene were identified. The two TH isoforms contained isoform-specific regions in the regulatory ACT domain and showed differential expression patterns in different tissues. In addition, the dopamine receptor genes had a receptor subtype-specific distribution: the Dop1, Dop2, and DopEcR genes were broadly expressed in various tissues at differential expression levels, and the Dop3 gene was restrictedly expressed in neuronal tissues and the testicles. Our findings provide a fundamental basis for understanding the dopaminergic regulation of diverse physiological processes in the cricket.
KeywordsDopamine Tyrosine hydroxylase Dopamine receptors High-affinity dopamine transporter Gryllus bimaculatus
We thank Dr. Miriam Henze (Lunds Universitet, Sweden) for reviewing. This research was partly supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows to T. Watanabe, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the MEXT, Scientific Research on Priority Areas (Area No. 454) to H. Aonuma (No. 17075001) and from the JSPS to H. Aonuma (No. 23300113).
Conflict of interest
- Ali D (1997) The aminergic and peptidergic innervation of insect salivary glands. J Exp Biol 200:941–949Google Scholar
- Brandes C, Sugawa M, Menzel R (1990) High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of catecholamines in single honeybee brains reveals caste-specifc differences between worker bees and queens in Apis mellifera. Comp Biochem Physiol 97:53–57Google Scholar
- Drummond AJ, Ashton B, Buxton S, Cheung M, Cooper A, Duran C, Field M, Heled J, Kearse M, Markowitz S, Moir R, Stones-Havas S, Sturrock S, Thierer T, Wilson A (2011) Geneious v5.4, Available from http://www.geneious.com/
- Klemm N (1979) Biogenic amines in the stomatogastric nervous system of several insect orders. Entomol Gen 5:113–121Google Scholar
- Kurshan PT, Hamilton IS, Mustard JA, Mercer AR (2003) Developmental changes in expression patterns of two dopamine receptor genes in mushroom bodies of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Neurol 466:91–103Google Scholar
- Mitsumasu K, Ohta H, Tsuchihara K, Asaoka K, Ozoe Y, Niimi T, Yamashita O, Yaginuma T (2008) Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding dopamine receptor-1 and -2 from brain -suboesophageal ganglion of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Mol Biol 17:185–195Google Scholar
- Sawzdargo M, Nguyen T, Lee DK, Lynch KR, Cheng R, Heng HH, George SR, O’Dowd BF (1999) Identification and cloning of three novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes GPR52, ΨGPR53 and GPR55: GPR55 is extensively expressed in human brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 64:193–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sonnhammer EL, von Heijne G, Krogh A (1998) A hidden Markov model for predicting transmembrane helices in protein sequences. Proc Int Conf Intell Syst Mol Biol 6:175–182Google Scholar