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Table 1 Patient characteristics at baseline by chronic kidney disease stage

From: Risk factors for CKD progression in Japanese patients: findings from the Chronic Kidney Disease Japan Cohort (CKD-JAC) study

Characteristics (n) Chronic kidney disease stages Trend P
Stage G3a, n (306) Stage G3b, n (1045) Stage G4, n (1149) Stage G5, n (466)
Age, years 60. 3 ± 11.6 (2966) 54.7 ± 13.4 59.9 ± 12.0 61.5 ± 10.6 62.1 ± 10.6 <0.0001
Female, % 37.9 (2966) 36.9 35.4 38.6 42.7 0.018
Diabetes mellitus, % 37.7 (2966) 31.4 36.3 38.8 42.1 0.001
History of cardiovascular disease, % 23.0 (2966) 16.7 21.3 24.0 28.5 <0.0001
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.5 ± 3.8 (2678) 24.3 ± 3.6 23.7 ± 3.9 23.3 ± 3.8 23.2 ± 3.7 <0.0001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 131.7 ± 18.6 (2923) 129.0 ± 17.3 130.1 ± 17.9 132.1 ± 19.1 136.2 ± 19.0 <0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 76.3 ± 11.8 (2920) 76.3 ± 11.3 76.5 ± 11.4 76.0 ± 12.2 76.4 ± 12.2 0.966
Pulse pressure, mmHg 55.4 ± 14.3 (2921) 52.7 ± 13.1 53.6 ± 13.8 56.1 ± 14.5 59.7 ± 14.3 <0.0001
Current smoker, % 44.9 (2521) 43.7 46.2 45.2 41.9 0.454
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 28.9 ± 12.2 (2966) 50.5 ± 4.9 37.1 ± 4.2 22.5 ± 4.3 11.8 ± 2.0 <0.0001
Serum creatinine, mg/dL 2.15 ± 1.06 (2966) 1.11 ± 0.17 1.44 ± 0.25 2.29 ± 0.52 4.05 ± 0.90 <0.0001
Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dL 31.5 ± 14.7 (2925) 19.0 ± 5.0 23.5 ± 6.6 34.1 ± 11.5 50.9 ± 17.0 <0.0001
Hemoglobin, g/dL 12.1 ± 1.8 (2920) 13.3 ± 1.8 12.8 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 1.6 10.6 ± 1.3 <0.0001
Uric acid, mg/dL 7.18 ± 1.56 (2901) 6.59 ± 1.48 7.03 ± 1.39 7.35 ± 1.60 7.49 ± 1.73 <0.0001
Serum albumin, g/dL 3.97 ± 0.43 (2870) 4.09 ± 0.41 4.01 ± 0.42 3.93 ± 0.42 3.89 ± 0.45 <0.0001
Serum calcium, mg/dL 9.01 ± 0.53 (2718) 9.21 ± 0.43 9.11 ± 0.46 8.99 ± 0.49 8.70 ± 0.65 <0.0001
Serum phosphorus, mg/dL 3.53 ± 0.69 (2624) 3.27 ± 0.57 3.31 ± 0.59 3.55 ± 0.62 4.11 ± 0.77 <0.0001
Serum parathyroid hormone, pg/mL 106.3 ± 92.6 (2755) 56.0 ± 26.4 68.1 ± 34.9 109.2 ± 70.9 216.2 ± 147.2 <0.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 194.2 ± 43.3 (2479) 201.6 ± 43.8 197.0 ± 43.8 192.1 ± 41.1 187.5 ± 45.8 <0.0001
High-density cholesterol, mg/dL 54.5 ± 18.4 (2126) 57.2 ± 18.5 56.0 ± 18.6 53.5 ± 18.3 51.5 ± 17.5 <0.0001
Low-density cholesterol, mg/dL 108.2 ± 33.0 (2231) 114.0 ± 28.6 110.1 ± 34.5 106.4 ± 31.0 103.8 ± 36.2 <0.0001
Triglycerides, mg/dL 167.0 ± 109.3 (2512) 175.2 ± 133.2 165.9 ± 108.4 168.6 ± 110.4 159.5 ± 87.2 0.097
Ferritin, ng/mL 137.2 ± 136.6 (1539) 130.4 ± 124.6 124.8 ± 120.5 142.6 ± 153.0 153.0 ± 131.5 0.041
C-reactive protein, mg/dL 0.10 (0.04–0.20) 0.08 (0.04–0.15] 0.10 (0.04–0.20] 0.10 (0.04–0.20] 0.08 (0.03–0.20] 0.064
Fibroblast growth factor 23, pg/mL 56.70 (40.10–91.30) 39.20 (30.70–51.30) 46.60 (35.90–64.10) 62.45 (46.80–94.00) 109.60 (71.30–176.80) NC
Log fibroblast growth factor 23a 4.24 ± 0.91 (2709) 3.85 ± 0.83 4.01 ± 0.80 4.30 ± 0.89 4.85 ± 0.93 <0.0001
UACR 300–999 mg/g Cre, % 28.2 (2713) 21.1 27.1 30.4 30.0 <0.0001
UACR ≥1000 mg/g Cre, % 31.6 (2713) 15.4 21.9 36.1 52.0 <0.0001
ARBs or ACEIs, % 81.8 (2966) 76.5 80.7 84.3 82.0 0.013
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, % 13.2 (2966) 1.0 2.9 15.5 38.6 <0.0001
Statins, % 40.3 (2966) 43.5 40.5 41.6 34.6 0.039
Vitamin D receptor activators, % 8.6 (2966) 9.2 7.2 7.6 13.7 0.009
Sodium bicarbonate, % 9.7 (2966) 1.0 3.7 11.0 25.8 <0.0001
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. Calculated based on mean ± SD
  3. aLogarithmic conversion was conducted to allow inter-group comparisons
  4. Stage G3a, eGFR: 45–59 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage G3b, eGFR: 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage G4, eGFR: 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage G5, eGFR: <15 mL/min/1.73 m2
  5. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, NC not calculable, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, ACEIs angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors