Skip to main content

Production of chemokines in respiratory syncytial virus infection with central nervous system manifestations

Abstract

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children can be associated with acute encephalopathy. However, the roles of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of such patients remain unevaluated. In this study, a profile of 17 cytokines was determined for eight RSV-infected children with neurological complications. In one patient with high levels of 13 cytokines, a cytokine storm was considered to have occurred. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β levels were also high in other patients. These data suggest that chemokines in CSF play roles in neurological complications in RSV-infected children.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Ng YT. Encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Child Neurol. 2001;16:105–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Zlateva KT, Van Ranst M. Detection of subgroup B respiratory syncytial virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:1065–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bajanowski T, Rolf B, Jorch G, Brinkmann B. Detection of RNA viruses in sudden infant death (SID). Int J Legal Med. 2003;117:237–40.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Rambaud C, Guibert M, Briand E, Grangeot-Keros L, Coulomb-L’Herminé A, Dehan M. Microbiology in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other childhood deaths. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999;25:59–66.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Ichiyama T, Suenaga N, Kajimoto M, Tohyama J, Isumi H, Kubota M, et al. Serum and CSF levels of cytokines in acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures. Brain Dev. 2008;30:47–52.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ichiyama T, Nishikawa M, Yoshitomi T, Hayashi T, Furukawa S. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid from children with prolonged febrile seizures. Comparison with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy. Neurology. 1998;50:407–11.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Otake Y, Yamagata T, Morimoto Y, Imi M, Mori M, Aihara T, et al. Elevated CSF IL-6 in a patient with respiratory syncytial virus encephalopathy. Brain Dev. 2007;29:117–20.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kawashima H, Ioi H, Ushio M, Yamanaka G, Matsumoto S, Nakayama T. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in children with seizures from respiratory syncytial virus infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:228–31.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Morichi S, Kawashima H, Ioi H, Ushio M, Yamanaka G, Kashiwagi Y, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid NO x (nitrite/nitrate) in RSV-infected children with CNS symptoms. J Infect. 2009;59:299–301.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ushio M, Yui I, Yoshida N, Fujino M, Yonekawa T, Ota Y, et al. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus genome by subgroups-A, S B specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). J Med Virol. 2007;77:121–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Antonucci R. Acute encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus infections in childhood. Minerva Pediatr. 2005;57:137–42.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Sweetman LL. Neurologic complications associated with respiratory syncytial virus. Pediatr Neurol. 2005;32:307–10.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Van Steensel-Moll HA, Van der Voort E, Bos AP, Rothbarth PH, Neijens HJ. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in children admitted to the intensive care unit. Pediatrie. 1989;44:583–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Szabo FK, Lomenick JP. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in an infant with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2008;47:840–2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ehrlich LC, Hu S, Sheng WS, Sutton RL, Rockswold GL, Peterson PK, et al. Cytokine regulation of human microglial cell IL-8 production. J Immunol. 1998;160:1944–8.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Lahrtz F, Piali L, Spanaus KS, Seebach J, Fontana A. Chemokines and chemotaxis of leukocytes in infectious meningitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;85:33–43.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Ishiguro A, Suzuki Y, Inaba Y, Fukushima K, Komiyama A, Koeffler HP, et al. The production of IL-8 in cerebrospinal fluid in aseptic meningitis of children. Clin Exp Immunol. 1997;109:426–30.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Tatara Y, Ohishi M, Yamamoto K, Shiota A, Hayashi N, Iwamoto Y, et al. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta induced cell adhesion with increased intracellular reactive oxygen species. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:104–11.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Puthothu B, Krueger M, Heinze J, Forster J, Heinzmann A. Impact of IL8 and IL8-receptor alpha polymorphisms on the genetics of bronchial asthma and severe RSV infections. Clin Mol Allergy. 2006;4:2.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Yokota S, Imagawa T, Miyamae T, Ito S, Nakajima S, Nezu A, et al. Hypothetical pathophysiology of acute encephalopathy and encephalitis related to influenza virus infection and hypothermia therapy. Pediatr Int. 2000;42:197–203.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Morishima T, Togashi T, Yokota S, Okuno Y, Miyazaki C, Tashiro M, et al. Encephalitis and encephalopathy associated with an influenza epidemic in Japan. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:512–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Aiba H, Mochizuki M, Kimura M, Hojo H. Predictive value of serum interleukin-6 level in influenza virus-associated encephalopathy. Neurology. 2001;57:295–9.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Mizuguchi M, Yamanouchi H, Ichiyama T, Shiomi M. Acute encephalopathy associated with influenza and other viral infections. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:45–56.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hisashi Kawashima.

About this article

Cite this article

Kawashima, H., Kashiwagi, Y., Ioi, H. et al. Production of chemokines in respiratory syncytial virus infection with central nervous system manifestations. J Infect Chemother 18, 827–831 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10156-012-0418-3

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10156-012-0418-3

Keywords

  • RS virus infection
  • Encephalopathy
  • Chemokine
  • IL-8
  • Children