We report a case of severe Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci pneumonia rapidly diagnosed by detection of antigen in sputum with an immunochromatography assay. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of shock, disturbance of consciousness, accidental hypothermia, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and he recovered after administration of intravenous erythromycin and high-dose methylpredonisolone therapy. Psittacosis was confirmed by detection of 16S rRNA gene of C.psittasi in sputum with multiplex-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Serological responses to C. psittasi, C. trachomatis, and C. pneumoniae were also evaluated, and serological cross-reactivity was observed between each species. We consider that the commercially available immunochromatography assay for Chlamydia species can be helpful for rapid diagnosis of Chlamydia infection of the respiratory tract. Hereafter, further examination will be necessary regarding pretreatment of specimens or detection sensitivity and specificity.