Techniques in Coloproctology

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 151–160 | Cite as

What to consider when designing a laparoscopic colorectal training curriculum: a review of the literature

  • A. Gaitanidis
  • C. Simopoulos
  • M. Pitiakoudis


Multiple studies have demonstrated the benefits of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCS), but in several countries it has still not been widely adopted. LCS training is associated with several challenges, such as patient safety concerns and a steep learning curve. Current evidence may facilitate designing of efficient training curricula to overcome these challenges. Basic training with virtual reality simulators has witnessed meteoric advances and may be essential during the early parts of the learning curve. Cadaveric and animal model training still constitutes an indispensable training tool, due to a higher degree of difficulty and greater resemblance to real operative conditions. In addition, recent evidence favors the use of novel training paradigms, such as proficiency-based training, case selection and modular training. This review summarizes the recent advances in LCS training and provides the evidence for designing an efficient training curriculum to overcome the challenges of LCS training.


Performance assessment Laparoscopic surgery Colon surgery Rectal surgery Systematic review Surgical training 



All the authors that contributed in the preparation of this manuscript have been mentioned.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

No ethical consent was required for the purposes of this study.

Informed consent

No informed consent was required for the purposes of this study.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Second Department of SurgeryUniversity General Hospital of Alexandroupoli, Democritus University of Thrace Medical SchoolAlexandroupoliGreece

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