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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed via MRI-targeted biopsy and treated with RP and ePLND

From: External validation of the Briganti 2019 nomogram to identify candidates for extended pelvic lymph node dissection among patients with high-risk clinically localized prostate cancer

Parameter Comparison within the external validation cohort Development cohort
Overall pN0 pN1 P value pN0 pN1 P value
Patients, n (%) 278 (100) 259 (93.2) 19 (6.8)   435 (87.5) 62 (12.5)  
Median age at surgery, years (IQR) 67 (63–71) 67 (63–71) 69 (65–71) 0.364 65 (60–70) 64 (60–71) 0.8
Median preoperative PSA, ng/ml (IQR)†,‡,§, ¶, ††,‡‡ 8.2 (5.7–12) 8.0 (5.6–11) 11.4 (10–15) 0.013 7.2 (5.1–11) 11 (6.7–21) < 0.001
Median prostate volume, ml (IQR) 23.6 (19–30) 23.5 (19–29) 25.9 (20–31) 0.511 43 (33–55) 48 (34–59) 0.1
Median maximum index lesion diameter on mpMRI, mm (IQR) 10 (8–14) 10 (8–14) 13 (10–18) 0.157 10 (9–14) 15 (10–18)  < 0.001
Clinical stage on mpMRI, n (%)†,‡,§, ¶,††,‡‡             
 Organ-confined 207 (75) 195 (75) 12 (63) 0.377 358 (85) 29 (47)  < 0.001
 Extracapsular extension 66 (24) 59 (23) 7 (37)   49 (12) 19 (31)  
 Seminal vesicle invasion 5 (1.8) 5 (1.9) 0 (0.0)   13 (3) 14 (22)  
Biopsy grade roup overall, n (%)‡,††,‡‡             
 1 6 (2.2) 6 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 0.005 55 (13) 1 (2)  < 0.001
 2 37 (13) 36 (14) 1 (5.3)   236 (54) 15 (24)  
 3 73 (26) 71 (27) 2 (11)   78 (18) 16 (26)  
 4 92 (33) 86 (33) 6 (32)   45 (10) 15 (24)  
 5 70 (25) 60 (23) 10 (53)   21 (5) 15 (24)  
Primary Gleason grade overall§,¶             
 3 46 (16.5) 45 (17.4) 1 (5.3) 0.020      
 4 211 (75.9) 197 (76.1) 14 (73.7)       
 5 21 (7.6) 17 (6.6) 4 (21.1)       
Secondary Gleason grade overall§,¶             
 3 79 (28.4) 77 (29.7) 2 (10.5) 0.036      
 4 138 (49.6) 128 (49.4) 10 (52.6)       
 5 61 (21.9) 54 (20.8) 7 (36.8)       
Median cores taken overall, n (IQR) 15 (12–16) 15 (12–16) 16 (12–16) 0.828 16 (14–18) 16 (14–18) 0.2
Median positive cores taken overall, n (IQR) 5 (4–7) 5 (4–7) 8 (6–9) 0.006 5 (3–8) 5 (9–12)  < 0.001
Median negative cores taken overall, n (IQR) 8 (6–11) 8 (7–11) 7 (5–10) 0.029      
Median percentage positive cores overall, % (IQR) 39 (25–50) 38 (25–50) 56 (42–67) 0.005 33 (20–50) 55 (36–80)  < 0.001
Median positive cores with highest-grade disease, % (IQR) 13 (8–25) 13 (8–25) 13 (8–25) 0.434 20 (12–38) 40 (24–60)  < 0.001
Median positive cores with lower-grade disease, % (IQR) 19 (8–35) 19 (8–33) 31 (13–50) 0.021 16 (8–27) 21 (10–30) 0.1
Grade group on MRI-targeted biopsy, n (%)             
 1 15 (5.4) 15 (5.8) 0 (0.0) 0.025 72 (17) 1 (2)  < 0.001
 2 58 (21) 56 (22) 2 (11)   225 (52) 15 (24)  
 3 74 (27) 69 (27) 5 (26)   72 (17) 16 (26)  
 4 73 (26) 69 (27) 4 (21)   46 (11) 17 (27)  
 5 58 (21) 50 (19) 8 (42)   20 (5) 13 (21)  
Target-cores taken on MRI-targeted biopsy, n (%)             
 2 ≥ 72 (26) 68 (26) 4 (21) 0.663 165 (38) 27 (44) 0.1
 3 25 (9.0) 24 (9.3) 1 (5.3)   94 (22) 18 (29)  
 4 145 (52) 133 (51) 12 (63)   77 (18) 10 (16)  
 ≥ 5 36 (13) 34 (13) 2 (11)   99 (23) 7 (11)  
Positive cores on MRI-targeted biopsy, n (%)             
 1 56 (20) 52 (20) 4 (21) 0.121 111 (26) 5 (8.1) 0.1
 2 87 (31) 84 (32) 3 (16)   173 (40) 32 (51)  
 3 58 (21) 56 (22) 2 (11)   69 (16) 16 (26)  
 ≥4 77 (28) 67 (26) 10 (53)   82 (18) 9 (15)  
Grade group on systematic biopsy, n (%)             
 Negative 28 (10) 28 (11) 0 (0.0) 0.003 80 (18) 4 (7)  < 0.001
  1 23 (8.3) 23 (8.9) 0 (0.0)   100 (23) 6 (10)  
  2 63 (23) 60 (23) 3 (16)   171 (40) 14 (23)  
  3 57 (21) 55 (21) 2 (11)   44 (10) 15 (24)  
  4 62 (22) 56 (22) 6 (32)   25 (6) 9 (15)  
  5 45 (16) 37 (14) 8 (42)   15 (4) 14 (23)  
Median systematic cores taken, n (IQR) 8 (8–14) 8 (8–14) 8 (8–14) 0.917 12 (10–15) 12 (10–16) 0.2
Median cores with csPC on systematic biopsy, % (IQR) 25 (13–38) 25 (13–38) 38 (32–50) 0.005 12 (0–37) 42 (17–76)  < 0.001
Surgical technique, n (%)             
 Open RP 106 (38) 97 (38) 9 (47) 0.68 40 (9.2) 3 (4.8) 0.2
 Minimum incision endoscopic RP 7 (2.5) 7 (2.7) 0 (0.0)   0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Robot-assisted RP 165 (59) 155 (60) 10 (53)   395 (90) 59 (95)  
Gleason grade group on final pathology, n (%)             
 1 4 (1.4) 4 (1.5) 0 (0.0) 0.008 15 (3.5) 0 (0)  < 0.001
 2 103 (37) 101 (39) 2 (11)   218 (50) 3 (4.8)  
 3 113 (41) 103 (40) 10 (53)   147 (34) 25 (40)  
 4 15 (5.4) 14 (5.4) 1 (5.3)   22 (5.1) 4 (6.5)  
 5 43 (16) 37 (14) 6 (32)   30 (6.9) 30 (48)  
Pathologic stage, n (%)             
 T2 171 (62) 166 (64) 5 (26)  < 0.001 215 (50) 3 (4.8)  < 0.001
 T3a 83 (30) 76 (29) 7 (37)   180 (41) 20 (32)  
 T3b/4 24 (8.6) 17 (6.6) 7 (37)   40 (9.2) 39 (63)  
Positive surgical margins, n (%) 79 (28) 70 (27) 9 (47) 0.068 103 (24) 40 (48)  < 0.001
Median lymph node removed, n (IQR) 18 (14–24) 18 (14–24) 17 (14–22) 0.85 15 (10–20) 17 (13–24) 0.02
Median positive lymph nodes, n (IQR) 0 (0–0)   1 (1–2)   1 (1–2) -
  1. ,‡,§,¶,††,‡‡Corresponds to variables of nomograms listed in Table 1