Prostate-specific antigen density predicts extracapsular extension and increased risk of biochemical recurrence in patients with high-risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy
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Patients with advanced local-stage, high-grade prostate cancer (Pca) and high pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have inferior outcomes compared to their counterparts with more favorable clinical characteristics. However, some patients exhibit favorable pathological features or experience long-term PSA-free survival after radical prostatectomy (RP). We retrospectively examined the ability of preoperative characteristics to predict pathological and oncological outcomes in high-risk Pca patients who underwent RP.
We examined data of 1,268 consecutive Pca patients treated with RP alone at 4 hospitals from the Michinoku Urological Cancer Study Group database. Preoperative predictors included age, PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, clinical T stage, and PSA density (PSAD). The outcome measures pathological T stage and PSA-free survival were evaluated by multivariate analysis.
We identified 380 high-risk Pca patients, of which 44 % patients had extracapsular extension. Logistic regression analysis indicated that PSAD was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic stage. The 5-year PSA-free survival rates were 82.9 % for patients with PSAD ≤0.468 ng mL−1 cm−2 and 50.7 % for those with PSAD >0.468 ng mL−1 cm−2 (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that PSAD, cT, and the number of preoperative high-risk Pca criteria were independent predictors of PSA-free survival.
PSAD may be an independent predictor of advanced pathological features and biochemical recurrence in high-risk Pca patients treated with RP alone. PSAD may be used for further risk stratification of high-risk Pca patients.
KeywordsProstate cancer High-risk Prostate-specific antigen density Advanced prostate cancer Biochemical recurrence-free survival
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